Entries in Antebellum (Pre-1861)

Missouri Compromise (Transcript)
An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, and to prohibit slavery in certain territories. Continue Reading »
Mitchel, Ormsby MacKnight
Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel was a world-renowned astronomer and a Union major general during the American Civil War who served briefly as commander of the Department of the Ohio. Continue Reading »
Mountain Meadows Massacre
On September 11, 1857, members of the Mormon militia and Paiute Indians murdered roughly 120 unarmed men, women, and children in southwestern Utah during the Utah War. Continue Reading »
Nelson, William
Murdered by fellow Union General Jefferson C. Davis in 1862, William "Bull" Nelson simultaneously served as a major general in the U.S. Volunteer Army and as a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War. Continue Reading »
Nullification Crisis
On November 24, 1832, the Convention of the People of South Carolina approved the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, precipitating a constitutional crisis that nearly triggered a civil war in the United States. Continue Reading »
Olds, Edson Baldwin
Edson B. Olds was a Copperhead leader and three-term U.S. Congressman from Ohio. In 1862, federal officials arrested and imprisoned Olds for disloyalty. Continue Reading »
Opdycke, Emerson
A prominent Union general officer, Ohioan Emerson Opdycke played significant roles at the Battle of Chattanooga and the Battle of Franklin. Continue Reading »
Ord, Edward Otho Cresap
A career United States Army officer, Edward O.C. Ord played major leadership roles in both theaters of the American Civil War and as commander of the Department of the Ohio at the conclusion of hostilities. Continue Reading »
Parker, Ely Samuel
Ely Samuel Parker was General Ulysses S. Grant’s personal secretary for the last years of the American Civil War. He also served as Commissioner of Indian Affairs during Grant’s presidency. Continue Reading »
Pemberton, John Clifford
Vilified by Northerners for leaving the U.S. Army to fight for the South, and by Southerners for surrendering Vicksburg, Pennsylvanian, John C. Pemberton rose to the rank of lieutenant general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. Continue Reading »
Pendleton, George H.
George Hunt Pendleton was a Democratic Congressman and Senator from Ohio. A leading Peace Democrat during the American Civil War, Pendleton was also the sponsor of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883. Continue Reading »
Pickett, George
A prominent Confederate commander during the American Civil War, George Edward Pickett is most remembered for leading a failed assault at Cemetery Ridge during the Battle of Gettysburg. Continue Reading »
Pillow, Gideon Johnson
A political appointee with little military experience prior to the American Civil War, Brigadier-General Gideon J. Pillow is most remembered for abandoning Fort Donelson in 1861 to avoid being captured by Federal soldiers. Continue Reading »
Pleasonton, Alfred
A prominent Union cavalry officer, Major General Alfred Pleasonton commanded the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac during the Gettysburg Campaign. Continue Reading »
Polk, Leonidas
An ordained Episcopal bishop, Confederate Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk was killed by a Union artillery shell at Pine Mountain, near Marietta, Georgia, on June 14, 1864. Continue Reading »
Pope, John
Major General John Pope was a prominent and controversial army officer who commanded the Union Army of Virginia at the Battle of Bull Run II. Continue Reading »
Porter, Fitz John
Fitz John Porter was a corps commander with the Union Army, whose career was ruined by court martial proceedings over his performance at the Battle of Bull Run II. Continue Reading »
President Tyler's Executive Order Appointing Winfield Scott as General of the Army
On July 5, 1841 U.S. President John Tyler issued an executive order appointing Major General Winfield Scott as General of the Army. Continue Reading »
Price, Sterling
Sterling Price was an antebellum governor of Missouri, United States Congressman, and prominent Confederate commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. Continue Reading »
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
In 1842, the United States Supreme Court affirmed the preeminence of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 when it declared a Pennsylvania statute unconstitutional in the case of Prigg v. Pennsylvania. While upholding the right of slave owners to reclaim fugitive slaves in the North, the court's decision had the unintended effect of prompting Northern states to enact personal liberty laws, which prohibited state officials from participating in the capture of runaways, thereby engendering additional sectional discord. Continue Reading »

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Ohio Civil War Central: An Encyclopedia of the American Civil War