In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery batteries formed in Ohio became known as batteries of Ohio Volunteer Artillery. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. Recruited in Clark County, Ohio, the 16th Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery reported for duty at Camp Clark, in Springfield, Ohio, on August 20, 1861. This organization was also known as Mitchell's Battery, named after James A. Mitchell, one of the battery's captains. The men in the battery were to serve three years.
In early September 1861, officials ordered the 16th to Cincinnati, Ohio, with the unit arriving on September 5, 1861. The battery immediately left Cincinnati for St. Louis, Missouri, arriving on September 7, 1861. The organization joined General John C. Fremont's command and engaged in drill until October 14, 1861, when the 16th advanced to Jefferson City. Missouri. The battery constructed fortifications and performed garrison duty at Jefferson City until February 14, 1862, when the unit returned to St. Louis and encamped at Benton Barracks. On March 6, 1862, authorities dispatched the organization to Pilot Knob, Missouri, where the 16th prepared for the Union's invasion of Arkansas. The battery advanced to Doniphan, Missouri on March 21, 1862, arriving ten days later and engaging in a brief skirmish with Confederate forces. On April 11, 1862, the unit reached Pocahontas, Arkansas and captured a sizable amount of supplies. The battery arrived at Jacksonport, Arkansas on May, 3, 1862, and on May 14, 1863, officials dispatched two gun crews to Batesville, Arkansas. The Confederate gunboat Blue Wing shelled these gun crews at Batesville, prompting the Northerners to withdraw. This force rejoined the rest of the battery at Jacksonport on June 1, 1862.
On June 20, 1862, the 16th departed Jacksonport and marched to Augusta, Tennessee, arriving by July 4, 1862. The next day, the battery began a long march to Helena, Arkansas, where the organization encamped during the autumn of 1862 and the winter of 1862-1863. The unit did participated in two expeditions up the White River, during which the battery helped capture Des Arc and Duvall's Bluff, including several artillery pieces and eight hundred prisoners. While at Helena, officials assigned the 16th to the 12th Division, 13th Army Corps. On April 8, 1863, the battery embarked upon General Ulysses S. Grant's Vicksburg Campaign, participating in the Battles of Port Gibson, Fourteen Mile Creek, Champion Hill, and Big Black River Bridge and the Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Upon the Union's capture of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863, officials dispatched the 16th to Jackson, Mississippi. Northern forces laid siege to this city, capturing it on July 17, 1863. The 16th returned to Vicksburg, arriving on July 22, 1863, and rested at this location for several weeks. In mid August 1863, the battery sailed from Vicksburg to New Orleans, Louisiana. On September 20, 1863, the organization moved to Berwick's Bay, Louisiana. The many of the unit's members reenlisted at Berwick's Bay and received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio. Upon the completion of the furlough, the battery returned to New Orleans on December 27, 1863.
On January 1, 1864, the 16th departed New Orleans on the transport Alabama for the Matagorda Peninsula in Texas. During the unit's stay in Texas, officials stationed the battery at Indianola, Powderhorn, and Matagorda Island, before the organization returned to New Orleans in June 1864. The 16th remained at New Orleans until July 13, 1865, when officials dispatched the organization to Camp Chase at Columbus, Ohio. The battery mustered out of service at Camp Chase on August 2, 1865.
During the 16th Battery's term of service, the organization had two men, including one officer, killed on the battlefield and forty-five soldiers die from disease or accidents.
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"Mitchell's Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery," Ohio Civil War Central, 2021, Ohio Civil War Central. 19 Sep 2021 <http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=832>
"Mitchell's Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery." (2021) In Ohio Civil War Central, Retrieved September 19, 2021, from Ohio Civil War Central: http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=832