7th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service) (1861-1864)

Also Known As: Seventh Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service)

Updated: February 17, 2014

In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.

In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.

Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Soldiers of Ohio infantry regiments served the Union for varying lengths of time, ranging from one hundred days to three years. One of the three-year regiments was the 7th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry. The regiment mustered into service at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio, on June 16, 1861. The 7th Regiment had previously organized for three months service, but officials requested that the regiment's members reenlist for three years service. Those soldiers that did reenlist became the nucleus of the new 11th Ohio. Most of the regiment’s members came from Cleveland, Oberlin, Warren, Painesville, Youngstown, Norwalk, and Franklin.

On June 26, 1861, the 7th Ohio departed Camp Dennison for western Virginia, arriving at Benwood, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia) one day later. The regiment next marched along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, soon reaching and entering camp at Clarksburg in present-day West Virginia. On June 29, 1861, the organization marched to Weston, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia), where the 7th seized sixty-five thousand dollars from the local bank. The Virginia government had deposited this money to offset the costs to local citizens for building a lunatic asylum in this community. On July 4, 1861, the regiment advanced to Glenville, in present-day West Virginia. Confederate soldiers had besieged the 17th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry in this community, but the Southerners withdrew before the 7th arrived. The regiment next advanced to Sutton, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia), passing through the communities of Bulltown, Salt Lake, and Flatwood. At Sutton, the Ohioans busied themselves building fortifications, before marching to Cross Lanes, in present-day West Virginia, reaching this location on August 15, 1861.

On August 21, 1861, the 7th departed Cross Lanes for Gauley Bridge, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). Before the organization reached Gauley Bridge, officials countermanded the order, sending the regiment back to Cross Lanes, upon which Confederate General John Floyd was advancing with an enemy force. On August 25, 1861, the Battle of Cross Lanes erupted. The 7th's companies occupied several hills in the vicinity of the town, but Floyd's Confederates forced the Northerners to withdraw. The regiment had 120 men killed, wounded, or captured in this engagement. Approximately one-half of the organization retreated to Gauley Bridge, while the remaining soldiers withdrew to Charleston, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). The entire 7th eventually reunited at Gauley Bridge, where the regiment joined General J.D. Cox's command.

In early September 1861, Cox's force, including the 7th, advanced against Floyd's Confederates. On September 10, 1861, the Battle of Carnifex Ferry erupted between the two sides. The 7th did not participate in this engagement but did advance with Cox's command to Dogwood Gap, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia) in an attempt to intercept the retreating Southerners. Failing to locate Floyd's Southerners, Cox's force returned to Gauley Bridge. On October 16, 1861, the 7th marched to Charleston, where the organization entered camp. On November 1, 1861, the regiment began a march to Loup Creek, in present-day West Virginia, before returning to Charleston via steamer sixteen days later.

In mid-December 1861, the 7th traveled to Romney, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). A Confederate force under the command of General Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson prompted the Northern units in this community to withdraw to Patterson's Creek, in present-day West Virginia, in early January 1862. The 7th remained at Patterson's Creek until February 5, 1862, when a Union advance against Jackson's Southerners at Romney occurred. Officials ordered the regiment to take up a position on the road between Romney and Winchester, Virginia, hoping to trap the withdrawing Confederates, but Jackson's force escaped Romney before the Union soldiers arrived. Following this expedition, the 7th entered camp at Hampshire Heights, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia), eight miles from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The regiment next advanced to Pawpaw Station in present-day West Virginia, where the organization encamped until spring 1862.

On March 7, 1862, the Shenandoah Valley Campaign began, with the 7th marching to within four miles of Winchester, before embarking on an expedition to Strasburg, Virginia. On the advance to Strasburg, Union artillery shelled Jackson's Confederates, but no significant engagement occurred. The Northerners returned to Winchester. On March 23, 1862, Jackson's command attacked the Union forces at Winchester. In this engagement, the 7th had fourteen men killed and fifty-one soldiers wounded. The Northerners then moved to Harrisonburg, Virginia. Finding no suitable ground for an encampment, the Union soldiers marched to New Market, Virginia.

On May 12, 1862, the 7th, with the remainder of its division, departed New Market for Fredericksburg, Virginia. In the meantime, "Stonewall" Jackson had received reinforcements, prompting officials to order the 7th's division back to the Shenandoah Valley. On June 9, 1862, the division participated in the Battle of Port Republic. Despite being greatly outnumbered, the Northerners withstood a day of Confederate attacks. The 7th and the 5th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry endured the brunt of the assaults. The Union forces eventually withdrew from the battlefield, with the 7th acting as the rear guard.

By June 28, 1862, the 7th had arrived at Alexandria, Virginia, on the outskirts of Washington, DC. Officials ordered the First and Second Brigades of the regiment's division to the Peninsula in Virginia to reinforce the Army of the Potomac, which was advancing on Richmond. The Third and Fourth Brigades, including the 7th Regiment, remained at Alexandria, joining the Union's Army of Virginia.

On August 9, 1862, the Army of Virginia, including the 7th, advanced to Culpepper, Virginia and, then, to Cedar Mountain, Virginia, where "Stonewall" Jackson's command held a strong position. The Northerners attacked in mid-afternoon, with the 7th briefly engaging the enemy in hand-to-hand combat. The regiment entered the Battle of Cedar Mountain with three hundred men available for duty. Only one hundred of these men exited the engagement unharmed. After the battle, the 7th's commanding officer issued the following report:

HDQRS. SEVENTH REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, In Field near Culpeper Court-House, August 9, 1862.

SIR:I would respectfully submit the following report of the part taken by the Seventh Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the battle of Cedar Creek, Saturday, August 9, 1862:

At about 8 o'clock a.m. we moved forward, by order of Brig.-Gen. Geary, commanding the brigade, a distance of 8 miles, suffering greatly from the scarcity of water and the intense heat, from the effect of which a number of men were fatally sun-struck. We took position in rear of Knap's battery, on the west side of Cedar Creek, forming in line of battle nearly due north and south, and remained there until 3.30 p.m., when we changed position by the right flank to support the right-center battery. In that position we remained about an hour, when we received orders to advance in line of battle. We moved forward about 200 yards, and were ordered to halt and await further orders. In the mean time we were exposed to a terrible cross-fire from rebel batteries, when we lost several men killed and wounded. We remained there about an hour, when we advanced to support the line of skirmishers thrown out by the enemy, then advancing in force in line of battle. We were soon in range of their infantry, and became hotly engaged. We held our position until relieved by the Twenty-ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, when, closing my decimated ranks, I moved off the field by the right of column to the rear, and halted on the summit of a hill on the east side of Cedar Creek. Being wounded in the left side and arm, I was compelled to retire and leave the command of the regiment to the senior officer in the field.

At about 9 o'clock p.m. we moved forward toward Cedar Creek, being detailed for picket duty. When within a short distance of the creek our advance was challenged, but giving no answer, we received volleys from right, left, and front, compelling us to retire under the cover of the woods, and falling back 1 mile we bivouacked for the night.

I cannot speak too highly of the officers and men. Every one was at his post, and nobly did each one do his duty.

Number of field, line, and staff officers in action; 14; number of enlisted men taken into action, 293; field and staff officers wounded, 2; line officers killed, 3; wounded, 5; enlisted men killed, 34; wounded, 146. All of which is respectfully submitted.

W.R. CREIGHTON, Col., Comdg. Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry.

CHARLES CANDY, Comdg. 1st Brig., 2nd Div., 2nd Corps Army of Va.

The Northerners slowly withdrew to northern Virginia to the vicinity of Washington. The 7th remained in the defenses of Washington until early September 1862, when the organization joined the Army of the Potomac's pursuit of the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia, which had launched an invasion of Maryland. The two armies engaged each other several times on this advance, but the 7th only participated in the Battle of Antietam. Officials held the regiment in reserve for most of the battle, so the organization suffered few casualties. After the battle, the 7th's commanding officer issued the following report:

HDQRS. SEVENTH REGIMENT OHIO VOLS. (INFANTRY), Loudoun Heights, Va., September 25, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by the Seventh Ohio Regiment in the late battle of the 17th day of September, 1862:

We formed in column of division, in compliance with orders form Brig.-Gen. Greene, commanding Second Division, Twelfth Army Corps. At 5.30 a. m. we advanced in column of division to attack the enemy, who were under cover of a piece of woods and who were engaging our right and holding our men in check. We then deployed in line of battle to the right and advanced in line of battle into the woods, where the enemy were lying in force. The engagement then became general. After a half hour's hard fighting on both sides, we succeeded in driving the enemy from his position under cover of the fence to the corn-field, when they fell back in confusion and disorder. Our troops closely pursued them, capturing many prisoners and covering the ground with their dead and wounded. After pressing them for 1 mile, they again took shelter under cover of a heavy piece of woods, when, having exhausted our ammunition, our men rested on their arms and waited half an hour for the ammunition to come up. After replenishing the men with ammunition, we changed our line to the right to an elevated piece of ground, and awaited the advance of the enemy, who were charging on us from the woods en masse. Our men, with coolness, waited until within 50 yards and then poured in a scathing fire upon them, volley upon volley, until they were forced to give way. Our men then closely pursued them back through a thick piece of woods, which point we held until ordered to retire.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

F. A. SEYMOUR, Capt., Commanding Seventh Ohio Volunteers.

Maj. O. J. CRANE, Commanding First Brigade.

Following the battle of Antietam, the 7th entered camp at Bolivar Heights, Maryland. On December 10, 1862, the regiment advanced towards Fredericksburg, Virginia, but officials quickly countermanded the order, sending the organization to Dumfries, Virginia, where the 7th entered winter encampment. In late December 1862, Confederate General James Ewell Brown Stuart's cavalry attacked Dumfries, but the 7th relatively easily repulsed the assault.

On April 20, 1863, the 7th broke camp and joined the Army of the Potomac's advance to Chancellorsville, Virginia. From April 30 to May 6, 1863, the Battle of Chancellorsville raged. The 7th spent most of the battle guarding an artillery battery but did engage the enemy on a number of occasions, losing fourteen men killed and seventy wounded. Following this Union defeat, the regiment served as the rearguard, as the Northern army retreated. After the battle, the 7th's commanding officer issued the following report:

NEAR AQUIA LANDING, VA., May 9, 1863.

COL.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by the Seventh Regt. Ohio Volunteers Infantry in the late engagement at Chancellorsville, Va.:

The regiment arrived at Chancellorsville Thursday p.m., April 30, and encamped for the night on the road leading southeast from Chancellorsville, on the south of the Fredericksburg Plank road.

Friday, the 1st instant, the regiment was unemployed until 11 a. m., when it advanced with the brigade out on the south and east road, and formed part of the second line of battle in the open wood lot, facing southeast from this point. It moved east with the brigade through the woods about half a mile, remaining there until ordered back. It returned to camp about 4 p.m., and in a short time was ordered farther back, and formed the second line of the battle, facing south at the edge of the woods directly south of the large brick house called the Chancellorsville place. Just before dark the regiment was ordered by Gen. Geary to move to the left to support Knap's (Pennsylvania) battery against an attack coming from the woods bordering on the southeast road. At this point, while lying on the ground, 1 man was killed and 2 severely wounded in Company. A by the carelessness of Company I, Fifth U. S. Artillery, which was in our rear.

The regiment remained near this point during the night and forenoon of the following day, the 2d instant, supporting Knap's battery, but were not actively engaged.

About noon of this day we were ordered to move out on each side of the road leading southeast, to support skirmishers from the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania volunteers and to clear the woods of the enemy's skirmishers and sharpshooters. At this time the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania refused to advance, and my column passed through them. During the early part of this engagement some of the regiments in our rear, believed to be from Gen. Kane's brigade, commenced firing over our heads and to our right and left, supposing that we were outflanked, and thereby creating some confusion, but which was soon remedied. On the right wing several men are believed to have been killed by this fire. The Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania skirmishes soon fell back, and our regiment took the advance, moving forward on both sides of the road, with flankers out, an driving the enemy back, and holding him for two or three hours. We then retired without confusion, and, when clear of the woods, halted until ordered back to the intrenchments.

During this engagement the loss in the left wing was very slight, a few only being wounded, but the right wing lost severely, considering the nature of the engagement.

After arriving at camp, the regiment again formed part of the second line of battle, in its old position at the edge of the woods opposite the brick house, and remained there during the night.

At daylight Sunday morning, May 3, we were ordered to the left of Best's battery, stationed a the old rifle-pits which lies south of the Fredericksburg road, remaining there until 8 o'clock.

At this point the regiment was sent to occupy the rifle-pit, and remained in it while the troops were falling back across the cleared field south of the Plank road. It then left the pit, formed under the fire of the batteries at the west end of field, and moved back to the left and rear of Best's battery, and lay there while the brigade occupied the breastworks and woods opposite the brick house. During all this time the regiment was under a severe cross-fire of shell from both front and rear, and a portion of the time receiving also musketry fire of the enemy, with whom the brigade was engaged. The brigade, being finally forced from the woods, passed over the regiment and formed in its rear, and the order was then given to advance, and, if possible, to clear the woods. The order was obeyed with alacrity, and the Seventh Ohio led the way, supported by the other regiments to the left and rear, and driving back the enemy for a considerable distance, until seeing no support for the brigade, we fell back to the left of the battery again, lying down in the road until the shell fire became too heavy.

About 11 a. m. the regiment and brigade withdrew across the cleared fields east of the brick house, retiring through the woods on the north side of the road, and losing a number of men from the enemy's guns shelling the woods as we retired.

About 2 miles from the battle-field, on the road to the United States Ford, the regiment was halted, and rested until some time in the afternoon, when it moved up the road a mile. Here it remained until 11 o'clock at night, when it was ordered back down the road, where it occupied a rifle-pit on the left of the line and about half a mile from the river.

It remained here through the night and until 4 p.m. of Monday, the 4th instant, when it was relieved by the Fifth Ohio regiment, and ordered to move by a circuit to the left, when it encamped in a ravine near the river.

During the afternoon of Tuesday, the 5th instant, it was employed in the intrenchments on the left until dark. At 10.30 o'clock Tuesday night, the order to be ready to move was received, but he regiment did not leave its position until 3.40 o'clock Wednesday morning, the 6th instant. At 4.45 o'clock the same morning it crossed the pontoon bridge at the United States Ford to the north side of the Rappahannock River, and arrived at the old camp near Aquia Landing, Va., early thursday afternoon, the 7th instant.

I cannot close this report without mentioning the names of the officers under my command. Lieut. Col. O. J. Crane; Capts. Samuel McClelland (the bravest of the brave), Krieger, and Wilcox; Adjutant Lockwood, and Lieut.'s Clark, Howe, Braden, McKay, Spencer, Bohm, Dean, and Cryne, all exhibited the most daring bravery, obeying every order promptly. The same can be said of the privates as well as the officers; not a man wavered, but each and every one performed his duty nobly.

I remain, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. R. CREIGHTON, Col., Cmdg. Seventh Ohio Volunteers.

Col. CHARLES CANDY, Cmdg. 1st Brig., 2d Div., 12th Army Corps.

During May and June 1863, the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia launched an invasion through western Virginia into Maryland and Pennsylvania. On July 1, 1863, the Union's Army of the Potomac engaged the enemy army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863), the 7th constantly shifted from position to position, wherever the Union line was weakest. In this engagement, the regiment lost only one man killed and seventeen wounded. After the battle, the 7th's commanding officer issued the following report:

Hdqrs. Seventh Regt. Ohio Volunteer Infantry, July 6, 1863.

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by the Seventh Regt. Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the engagement of July 2 and 3, near Gettysburg, Pa.:

On Thursday morning, July 2, we were encamped on the left side of the Gettysburg and Littlestown pike. At 6 a. m. we received marching orders, and at 6.30 moved out in line, changing our position to the right of the turnpike, forming our line of battle in the woods bordering on the hill at the right of the road. In obedience to your order, I sent forward Company H, under command of Capt. Samuel McLelland, to picket our front. They were posted along the stream which runs through the hollow at our left, and remained there until 6 p. m., when they rejoined my regiment. At this time the "fall in" was sounded, and my regiment, in company with the remainder of the brigade, moved by the right flank to the right and rear of the position which we had held during the former part of the day.

I formed my regiment in the open field in the rear of a stone wall at the left of and near the turnpike. At this place I allowed my men to sleep, having their arms and accouterments in perfect readiness to fall in at any moment. My regiment had not during any part of the day been exposed to the fire of musketry, but for some time in the afternoon we were exposed to quite a heavy fire of artillery, although not suffering any serious loss from it.

At 11.30 p. m. July 2, I was ordered to form my command. It was then moved under your directions out on to the pike, and advancing toward Gettysburg, but turned from the pike to our right at the same place which we had in the morning when first advancing. My line was formed in the hollow, at the right and rear of Gen. Greene's brigade. At this place we received a volley of musketry from the enemy's guns, wounding 1 man from Company I. In a few moments we were ordered to move by the right flank back to the open field, forming our line in the rear of a stone wall which runs parallel with the road leading to the pike. In a few moments, by order of Gen. Geary, I moved my command over the wall into the road, throwing out to the front 20 men, under charge of Sergeant [Isaac] Stratton, to act as skirmishers. At this place Sergeant Stratton received a severe if not a mortal wound.

Soon after daylight on the morning of the 3d, in compliance with your order, I drew in my skirmishers, and in a few moments moved my regiment by the left flank back near the position which we had occupied the morning previous. When in the edge of the woods, I formed my command in line of battle, and, in compliance with orders, I advanced forward double-quick, and relieved the Sixtieth New York Volunteers.

My regiment remained at the intrenchments until near 8 o'clock, when it was relieved by the Sixtieth New York Volunteers. When relieved, I formed my regiment in the hollow at the rear of the breastworks, remaining until 9.30 a. m., when I was again ordered forward to relieve a regiment. I was not again relieved until 9.30 p. m., having been under fire of musketry most of the day.

When relieved, I again formed my line in the hollow, and remained there until 1.30 a. m. on the morning of July 4, when my command was again ordered forward to the intrenchments, which position I held until the brigade moved out on the pike, preparatory to our return to Littlestown.

About 11 a. m. July 3, I observed a white flag thrown out from the rocks in front of our intrenchments. I immediately ordered my men to cease firing, when 78 of the enemy advanced and surrendered, including 3 captains, 2 first lieutenants, and 2 second lieutenants. At the time the white flag was raised, a mounted rebel officer (Maj. Leigh, assistant adjutant-general to Gen. Ewell [Edward Johnson]), was seen to come forward and endeavor to stop the surrender, when he was fired upon by my men and instantly killed.

Early in the morning of July 4, Corpl. John Pollock, Company H, of my regiment, advanced over the intrenchments, and captured the rebel flag belonging to the Fourteenth Virginia Regt., which, in compliance with orders received, was delivered to your headquarters.

I went into action with 265 enlisted men and came out with 247, losing 1 killed and 17 wounded,

In conclusion, I feel it my duty to mention the officers and men under my command, but when each and every one advanced forward to the contest without any exception whatever, I will merely say that every officer and man performed his duty manfully, every order being obeyed promptly.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. R. CREIGHTON, Col. Seventh Ohio.

Lieut. A. H. W. Creigh, A. A. A. G., First Brig., Second Div., Twelfth Corps.

Following the Battle of Gettysburg, the 7th advanced into Virginia. In late August 1863, the regiment boarded steamers at Alexandria and sailed to New York, New York, to help authorities to quash draft riots raging in the city. The organization arrived at Governor's Island in New York Harbor on August 26, 1863 and, on September 1, 1863, returned to its old camp along the Rapidan River in Virginia.

In late September 1863, officials ordered the 7th to the Western Theater, where the regiment entered camp at Bridgeport, Alabama. On November 24, 1863, the organization advanced upon Chattanooga, Tennessee, where the Confederacy's Army of Tennessee had besieged the city's Union garrison since late September 1863. On that day, Union forces, including the 7th, drove Southerners from Lookout Mountain, which overlooked Chattanooga. On the next day, the Northerners stormed Missionary Ridge, driving Confederate General Braxton Bragg's remaining soldiers from the ridge, attaining a Union victory, and ending the Chattanooga Campaign.

The 7th next pursued the retreating Confederates to Ringgold, Georgia and to Thompson's Gap. On November 27, 1863, the regiment attacked the Southern line with the rest of its brigade. The Confederates repulsed the attack, costing the 7th nineteen men killed and sixty-one more wounded. The 7th's commanding officer issued the following report regarding this engagement and the rest of the Chattanooga Campaign:

HDQRS. SEVENTH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Wauhatchie, Tennessee, December 3, 1863.

LIEUT.: I have the honor to report that, in obedience to orders received from the colonel commanding the brigade, on the morning of the 24th ultimo we were relieved from picket and marched, with the Twenty-eighth and One hundred and forty-seventh Pennsylvania and Sixty-sixth Ohio Regiments, of our brigade, up Lookout Valley, to a bridge across Lookout Creek. When we arrived there we found the other brigades of our division already crossing and forming for an assault on the rebels, camped on Lookout Mountain. The Seventh, under command of Col. William R. Creighton, crossed the creek about noon, being the second regiment of the brigade over, and formed in line of battle on the left and to the rear of the One hundred and forty-seventh Pennsylvania. After the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania and Sixty-sixth Ohio had crossed and had formed similarly to our left and rear, the whole brigade moved forward en echelon, obliquely up the mountain side, in support of the Third and Second Brigades, who had commenced skirmishing. When we arrived at the rebel camp, we found that they had surprised and captured nearly the entire rebel force on this side of Lookout.

The regiment halted on the northern slope of the mountain, at a point some 300 feet from the summit. We were considerably annoyed by a desultory fire from rebel sharpshooters, stationed on the top of the mountain, and whom it was impossible to dislodge at that time.

At this time two men were wounded. After remaining in this position about an hour, we were ordered to relieve the One hundred and thirty-seventh New York State Volunteers, who were on picket on the east side of the mountain about 300 yards beyond the ridge. The weather at this time was very foggy and rainy, making it impossible to distinguish friend from foe at the distance of a few yards.

While we were in the act of relieving the One hundred and thirty-seventh New York, we were attacked by the rebels, but as we could not see them by reason of the fog, we did not return the fire, sheltering ourselves as much as possible behind rocks and trees. The rebels continued their fire upward of two hours, but succeeded in wounding only 4 men, most of them slightly.

During this affair Col. Creighton assumed command of the brigade, having learned that the colonel commanding the brigade had become disabled by an accident. The command of the regiment then devolved on Lieut. Col. O. J. Crane.

We were relieved from picket about 5 p.m., and countermarched to a peach orchard a few rods to the rear, built fires, and cooked coffee. About midnight we were again ordered on picket, the right of the regiment resting well up toward the mountain top. The night was bitterly cold, and as the men had left their knapsacks behind, in obedience to orders, and as no fires were allowed on picket, the men suffered severely. We were relieved about daylight, and marched back to the peach orchard. About this time we discovered that the enemy had left the summit of Lookout Mountain.

About 10 a.m. on the 25th ultimo, we fell in and marched down the mountain and across the valley toward Mission Ridge. As the regiment was on the right of the column, three companies were sent out as skirmishers. We supported the skirmishers and marched up Mission Ridge, meeting little opposition. When we reached the top of the ridge we halted about an hour, but finding that the rebels had retreated, we marched down the hill and bivouacked for the night.

About 8 o'clock on the morning of the 26th ultimo, we started forward, our position being on the left of the brigade. Nothing of interest occurred during the day; we halted for the night at the foot of Pigeon Mountain.

We started at daylight on the morning of the 27th of November for Ringgold, Ga., our position still being on the left of the brigade. When our advance arrived at Ringgold, the enemy was found in position on Taylor's Ridge, beyond the town, their line extending from the gap northward, and prepared to resist our advance. As soon as our brigade arrived in town, it was ordered to scale the mountain beyond their right flank and to drive the rebels off. The brigade was drawn up in two lines of battle on the railroad about half a mile north of the gap, the rear line being ordered to preserve a distance of 100 yards in rear of the first line, and to act as its support. The Twenty-eighth and One hundred and forty-seventh Pennsylvania Regiments formed the first line, and the Sixty-sixth and Seventh Ohio Regiments formed the first line, the Seventh being on the left. When we approached the foot of the line, and the Sixty-sixth and Seventh Ohio Regiments the second line, the Seventh being on the left. When we approached the foot of the hill, the enemy, seeing our movements, made a disposition of his troops to meet us by extending his line to his right and opening a sharp and accurate fire on our advance line. The mountain is very steep and difficult of ascent, being about 450 feet high. When the first line reached the foot of the hill they halted to return the fire. The rear line continued its march, passed through the first line, and commenced ascending the hill. The Seventh ascended a ravine, which enabled the enemy to direct an effective fire on us from the front and both flanks, making us lose severely all along the line. The steepness of the ascent necessarily made our progress very slow, but the regiment persevered in its advance, not stopping to return the fire. The regiment nearly gained the crest of the hill, within a few yards of the rebel breastworks, when their fire became too heavy and effective for flesh and blood to withstand. Here Lieut. Col. O. J. Crane fell, one of the bravest and best of officers; and as a mere handful only remained, and as there was no hope of carrying the hill, Col. Creighton, commanding the brigade, ordered us to fall back to the foot of the hill, which we did, carrying as many of our wounded with us as possible.

On reaching the foot of the hill, finding that I was the only officer of the regiment not disabled, I took command, rallied the men, and rejoined the brigade. Soon after reaching the foot of the hill, Col. Creighton received his mortal wound, and soon after did from its effects. We are stunned by the loss of our colonels. We had fondly hoped that, having passed through so many battles, they would be spared to take us home in the spring. The loss will not be felt by us alone; it will be felt throughout the corps and at home.

The following is a summary of our loss on Taylor's Ridge, Ga.: Officers killed, Col. William R. Creighton, Lieut. Col. O. J. Crane, Adjt. Morris Baxter, Lieut. Joseph Cryne, and Lieut. Isaac C. Jones; officers wounded, Capt. Samuel McClelland, Capt. William D. Braden, Lieut. George A. McKay, Lieut. George D. Lockwood, Lieut. C. Nesper, Lieut. H. N. Spencer, Lieut. E. H. Bohm, and Lieut. D. H. Brown.

The number of enlisted men who were in line at the commencement of the battle was 206, of whom-were killed,-were wounded, none missing. Most of the wounds are severe ones.

I inclose herewith reports of the casualties on Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, on the 24th ultimo, and on Taylor's Ridge, Ga., on the 27th ultimo.

The men all behaved admirably and would not fall back until ordered, and the unparalleled loss of the officers testifies to their bravery and devotion. In the death of Col. Creighton and Lieut.-Col. Crane our loss is irreparable. They need no praise from us-we cannot do their memory nor our feelings justice, but we will always hold them in remembrance for their efforts in our behalf and as our guides through a dozen battles.

In the death of Adjt. Morris Baxter we lose a noble man, brave to rashness in battle, energetic and efficient in camp. Lieut.'s Cryne and Jones were good officers and gentleman, beloved by their respective commands.

Our noble dead need no eulogy from us; others will do their memories justice. We were repulsed, but not disgraced; humbled, but not humiliated. All that men could do against superior numbers and the advantageous position of the enemy was cheerfully done. We retired, under orders from Gen. Geary, from the hill with the consciousness that we had not dishonored our flag.

Respectfully submitted.

E. J. KRIEGER, Capt., Comdg. Seventh Regt. Ohio Vol. Infantry.

Lieut. A. H. W. CREIGH, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

After the engagement, the regiment returned to the organization's old campground at Bridgeport, Alabama. The 7th spent the winter of 1863-1864 at this location, conducting a few expeditions into northern Georgia.

On May 3, 1864, the 7th embarked upon Union General William T. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. The goal of this expedition was for Northern forces to capture the important manufacturing center of Atlanta, Georgia. The 7th fought in many of the early engagements of the campaign, including the Battles of Rocky Face Ridge and Resaca. During the Atlanta Campaign, the 7th's commanding officer issued the following reports:

HDQRS. SEVENTH REGT. OHIO VOL. INFANTRY, Bivouac, near Mill Creek Gap, Ga., May 11, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my command in the engagement on the 8th instant on Rocky Face Ridge, at Mill Creek Gap:

At about 2 p. m. the column, moving by the right flank under cover of the woods and just issuing to the open fields, was ordered into line. My command occupying the right, the line was formed in the rear of the Second Brigade. Orders were given to advance directly to the front, which was across open fields until the foot of the ridge was reached, the sides of which were rocky and very steep and covered with dense undergrowth of pine shrubs. No opposition was offered to our advance, when, at a temporary halt for rest at about two-thirds the way to the summit, we were removed from our position in the line by the left flank to a ridge or spur from the mountain side commanding the road leading to the summit. We were ordered into line in a position commanding this road and by order of Gen. Geary there remained as a reserve. While lying in this position frequent shots from the enemy above us struck near my line, many passing just over it. At night-fall, our troops having been ordered to fall back, I was ordered to fall in the rear of the Fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry and cover the retreat down the mountain. This order I obeyed by deploying a portion of my command as skirmishers 200 yards in the rear of my main force, which followed to the foot of the mountain. I was then ordered to report to Gen. Geary in person, and received orders from him to take my command and picket to the north of the camp, joining my right with the left of the One hundred and forty-seventh Pennsylvania, they picketing to the east and between the camp and the ridge. My command during the engagement consisted of 11 commissioned officers and 228 enlisted men, among whom no casualties occurred.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SAML. McCLELLAND, Lieut. Col., Comdg. Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry.

Lieut. A. H. W. CREIGH, A. A. A. G., 1st Brig., 2d Div., 20th Army Corps.

HDQRS. SEVENTH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Bivouac, near Cassville, Ga., May 21, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the movements of my command since May 12, 1864, and participation in the late engagement near Resaca, Ga.:

At about 7 a. m. Thursday, May 12, 1864, my command moved from its position near Mill Creek Gap in a southerly direction, and at sundown arrived at Snake [Creek] Gap, where we bivouacked for the night. May 13, at about 12 m. moved forward in a south-easterly direction until about 5 p. m., when we came upon our outer lines, which were skirmishing with the enemy. The regiment was ordered to take a position on a hill, where it remained during the night and until 4 p. m. the next day, May 14, when my command was ordered to the extreme left of our line of battle. We arrived after dark, formed in line and threw out pickets in front; remained here until 10 a. m. May 15, when the regiment was ordered to the right to the support of the Third Division, then heavily engaged in resisting the charge of the enemy. The regiment in line of battle advanced to within a few paces of the crest of the hill, in front of which were two lines of battle, and rested upon the ground. While lying in this position 5 men of my regiment were struck with the enemy's balls. None were dangerously wounded. After lying here about an hour I was ordered to support the One hundred and forty-seventh Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteers. We moved to the immediate front and formed on the right of that regiment, the regiment being in a ravine. Forty men were sent to the crest of the hill in advance as sharpshooters, their position being protected by piles of rails, breast-works having been built and artillery got into position on a commanding hill a few paces in our rear. At about 10 p. m. the regiment was ordered to join the remainder of the brigade, then lying in a ravine to our right and near the road running east and west. Here arms were stacked and the men laid down to rest. I was aroused at about 11 p. m. by rapid discharges of musketry, and caused the regiment to fall in and be in readiness for any emergency. By order of Gen. Geary three companies of my regiment were deployed on the crest of the hill to stop the retreat of stragglers from the front. The firing soon ceased, and the regiment rested undisturbed until daylight. At about 9 a. m. we were ordered to fall in, and moved off by the road toward the east, Crossing the railroad a mile north of Resaca at noon; crossed Connesauga Creek at 5 p. m; arrived at Coosawattee Creek; found the cavalry had discovered a body of the enemy in a piece of woods on the opposite bank. I was ordered to take my command a half mile to the left to support a section of artillery in position on commanding ground near the bank of the creek, our troops having crossed the creek without opposition. At 9 p. m. received orders to rejoin the brigade, then in camp on the opposite bank. May 17, again moved forward at about 12 m. After marching about eight miles halted for the night near Calhoun. May 18, fell in at 4 a. m., and after a very fatiguing march, principally across fields and over mountains, went into camp soon after sunset. May 19, moved off soon after sunrise in an easterly direction, scarcely any of the time being on a beaten path. At about 4 p. m., when approaching the town of Cassville, found that we were in the vicinity of the enemy. The regiment was ordered to take position behind some breast-works of rails hastily thrown up. After remaining here something like two hours my command was again moved forward about a mile and formed in line of battle on a retreating piece of ground in the rear of a piece of woods, where the regiment remains.

Respectfully submitted.

SAML. McCLELLAND, Lieut. Col., Comdg. Seventh Regt. Ohio Vol. Infty.

Lieut. A. H. W. CREIGH, A. A. A. G., 1st Brig., 2d Div., 20th Army Corps.

HDQRS. SEVENTH REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEERS, Near Allatoona, Ga., June 9, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the movements of my command since May 17, 1864, to the present date:

May 17, my command, then in camp on the south bank of the Coosawattee Creek, at about 11 a. m. moved forward in line a southerly direction, and at sundown halted for the night near Calhoun. May 18, moved on at 4 a. m., and after a very fatiguing march, most of the way over mountains and across fields, halted for the night just after sunset. May 19, moved forward in an easterly direction. Scarcely any of our line of march was in a beaten path or traveled road. At about 4 p. m., when approaching the town of Cassville, found the enemy in our immediate front. My command was ordered to take a position under cover of some hastily constructed breast-works, and after remaining there about two hours, was ordered forward about a mile, and then formed in line of battle in the rear of the One hundred and forty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers and on the left of the Fifth Ohio Volunteers. Here it remained until about 10 a. m. on the 21st instant, when it was removed about one mile to the rear in a piece of woods, where it remained until the morning of the 23d instant, when, with the division, it moved off, passing through Cassville and Cass Station, crossing the railroad and taking a southwesterly course; at about 4 p. m. crossed the Etowah River and halted for the night two miles beyond. May 24, at an early hour, the regiment was ordered forward, and at sunset was halted for the night on Hickory Ridge. May 25, received orders to take the advance of the brigade, which had the advance of the division and entire column; moved off at 7 a. m. At about a mile from camp, by order of Gen. Geary, I deployed seven companies as skirmishers, three on the right and four on the left of the road. Owing to the density of the underbrush and rank growth of weeds, which were very wet with rain, the advance of the skirmishers was very slow and toilsome. At about three miles from the previous night's camp, and when approaching Pumpkin Vine Creek, our advance was fired upon by the enemy's pickets, who were stationed at the bridge; the extreme right of my skirmishers was also fired upon by cavalry pickets from the opposite bank of the creek. The enemy had made all attempt to destroy the bridge by tearing up the planking and setting it on fire in several places. With some delay my command crossed and advanced to the hill on the opposite bank. After resting half an hour they again moved forward. Gen.'s Hooker and Geary, with their staffs and body guard, were well up with, and at times in advance of, the skirmish line. At about 10 a. m., when about two miles beyond the creek, some of Gen. Hooker's body guard, then in advance, were fired upon by the enemy. Gen. Geary immediately ordered me to deploy my reserve to the right and left of the road and move forward on the enemy to relieve Gen. Hooker's body guard, then being driven back. I did so, deploying my three remaining companies, consisting of about sixty-five men, who immediately engaged the enemy and held them at bay until the other regiments of the brigade were advanced in line of battle, pushing the enemy before them something like a mile. During this skirmish I had 1 man killed and 8 wounded. Here we were ordered to remain and throw up breast-works, which was done very hastily. At about 6 p. m. my command was ordered into line, the Fifth Ohio Volunteers on my right and Twenty-ninth Ohio Volunteers on my left, and advanced to the support of the Second and Third Brigades. On getting within range of the enemy's fire while advancing, 3 men were killed and 15 were wounded. One shell from the enemy's guns exploded in the ranks, killing 2 men and wounding 6 others. My command lay in position in the front line until 11 o'clock on the 26th instant, when it was relieved by a regiment from the Fourth Corps, and retired to a ravine a hundred yards in the rear, where it remained until the evening of the 27th instant, when it was ordered to relieve the Sixty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the first line of intrenchments. During the night and following day our skirmishers, stationed about fifty yards in advance of the breast-works, were constantly skirmishing with the enemy. At about 8 a. m. on the 28th instant the enemy opened upon us three pieces of artillery, but with no effect. The pieces were soon silenced by the Thirteenth New York Battery and our skirmishers in front. The regiment was relieved by the Fifth Ohio Volunteers, and retired to the ravine in the rear, where it remanied until the evening of the 30th instant, when it was ordered to relieve the Sixty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the first line of intrenchments. During the succeeding twenty-four hours our skirmishers were constantly firing, but nothing unusual occurred. One man of my command was severely wounded in the face by a musket-ball. May 31, at sunset, the regiment was relieved by the Fifth Ohio Volunteers, and retired to the second line of intrenchments.

June 1, at 12 m. my command was relieved by troops from the Fifteenth Army Corps, and was removed to the extreme left of our line of battle, where it bivouacked for the night. June 2, at 11 a. m. I received orders to move, and, with the division, moved forward toward the advanced line and halted at about a thousand yards in its rear. By orders formed in column by divisions, and here remained until the morning of the 6th instant, when the regiment was moved in an easterly direction for about four miles, when it was halted, and I was ordered to stack arms and immediately set about building breast-works. My command was very actively engaged at this until sunset, when it was relieved by a detail from the One hundred and forty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, and since that time has remained in camp upon the same ground.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

SAML. McCLELLAND, Lieut. Col., Comdg. Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry.

Lieut. A. H. W. CREIGH, A. A. A. G., 1st Brig., 2d Div., 20th Army Corps.

In mid-June 1864, officials ordered the regiment to Cleveland, Ohio, due to most of the organization's members having completed their three years of service. Those men who still had time remaining on their service requirement joined the 5th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry. On July 8, 1864, the 7th mustered out of service at Cleveland.

During the 7th Ohio's term of service, 184 men, including ten officers, died from wounds received on the battlefield. An additional eighty-nine men, including two officers, died from disease or accidents.

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"7th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service)," Ohio Civil War Central, 2019, Ohio Civil War Central. 16 Dec 2019 <http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=1283>

APA Style

"7th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service)." (2019) In Ohio Civil War Central, Retrieved December 16, 2019, from Ohio Civil War Central: http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=1283

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