In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Soldiers of Ohio infantry regiments served the Union for varying lengths of time, ranging from one hundred days to three years. One of the three-year regiments was the 19th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Organization occurred at Alliance, Ohio, and the regiment mustered into service on September 26, 1861. The 19th Regiment had previously organized for three months service. After the end of the initial regiment, its officers recruited a new three-year organization.
By November 7, 1861, the 19th had arrived at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio. Nine days later, the regiment traveled by train to Cincinnati and then boarded a steamer to Louisville, Kentucky, where the 19th entered camp at Camp Jenkins. On December 6, the organization boarded railroad cars for Lebanon, Kentucky. The regiment next advanced to Columbia, Kentucky. At Columbia, officials brigaded the 19th with the 59th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, the 2nd Regiment Kentucky Infantry, the 9th Regiment Kentucky Infantry, and Haggard's Cavalry Regiment. On January 17, 1862, the regiment advanced with the 3rd Regiment Kentucky Infantry to the mouth of Renick's Creek on the Cumberland River. The Northerners then advanced up the Cumberland River to Jamestown, where the 6th Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery joined the command. The Union force occupied a position at the mouth of Greasy Creek. Following the Union victory at the Battle of Mill Springs (January 19, 1862) and the Northern occupation of Bowling Green, Kentucky, the regiment returned to Columbia, Kentucky.
At Columbia, disease, especially measles and typhoid fever, rampaged through the 19th, placing as many as two hundred men in the hospital at one time. The regiment next advanced to Nashville, Tennessee, encamping on this city's outskirts on March 10, 1862. The organization departed Nashville eight days later for Savannah, Tennessee. On April 6, 1862, the 19th arrived at Savannah and immediately rushed to Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, approximately eleven miles away, where the Battle of Shiloh raged. The regiment reached the battlefield on the evening of April 6. On the following day, the 19th engaged the enemy forces, helping the Union to attain a victory. After the battle, the 19th's commanding officer issued the following report:
HDQRS. NINETEENTH REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEERS, Camp on Field of Battle, near Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., April 9, 1862.
GEN.: I submit the following report of the part taken by the Nineteenth Regt. Ohio Volunteers during the action fought at this place on the 7th of April, 1862: In accordance with your orders my regiment disembarked from the steamer Planet about midnight of April 6 (Sunday), proceeded about one-quarter of mile up the road, and formed line of battle in rear of the Fifty-ninth Regt. Ohio Volunteers, and stood in that position until daylight of Monday, when the Nineteenth Regt., taking the right of the brigade, marched about one-quarter mile farther down the road, where I relieved the men of their knapsacks, leaving a few men for their protection. After remaining there about fifteen minutes the regiment, by order of Gen. Crittenden, was counter-marched, and advanced, marching by the right flank in a direction nearly at right angles with the main road about three-quarters of a mile, forming column of company on the route, and forming in line about 200 paces to the rear of the line of battle formed by the Fourteenth Brigade. Here my regiment stood for a short time, and then by your order changed front to the right, and advanced to the brow of a hill to the right of Capt. Bartlett's battery. After changing alignment several times my regiment was ordered to maintain position and throw out the flanking companies as skirmishers. This deployment was made, and instructions given the skirmishing party to advance for enough to engage the enemy. They advanced to an open fenced field about one-half mile in front of the line, and were ordered to remain until further orders. A citizen prisoner was taken under suspicious circumstances, and by your order was sent to Gen. McCook.
Our skirmishers were soon discovered, and a heavy fire opened upon them by the enemy's artillery and by sharpshooters hid in a swamp close by, which was returned by them with good effect. The fire pressing them severely, they fell back about half the distance, and Capt. Manderson, acting major, was ordered by you to cause them to advance to the old line of deployment. This was done, and they remained in their position until ordered to their battalion. The regiment remained at the brow of the hill under an artillery fire, during which time Maj. Edwards, acting lieutenant-colonel, was killed, while gallantly doing his duty, by a cannon ball; and then, by your order, I advanced under fire of musketry, by which several were wounded, and delivered well-directed volleys with apparent effect, and then fell back half way up the hill, the enemy having advanced rapidly, to support Capt. Bartlett's battery and obtain range on the sharpshooters in the swamp. After a short time we formed by your order on the right of your brigade, and at about 2 o'clock my regiment was by your order temporarily attached to Gen. Nelson's division, to support his position on our left, and under his orders I sent out two companies as skirmishers, who succeeded in capturing 10 or 12 prisoners, and my regiment, with the Twenty-fourth Ohio and Ninth Indiana, supported the balance of his division in an advance, by which the enemy was driven from that part of the field. We bivouacked the ensuing night in advance, where the road crossed a creek. The next morning we were placed on the right of Gen. Nelson's division, which position we occupied until this morning, when by your order we rejoined your brigade.
Our loss, as shown by report herewith sent, is 1 field officer, 1 corporal, and 2 privates killed; 1 lieutenant severely wounded, 16 non-commissioned officers and privates severely wounded, 27 non-commissioned officers and privates slightly wounded, 8 non-commissioned officers and privates missing.
The actions of my officers and men came under your direct view. I make no comments on their behavior, except I have additional cause for pride and self-congratulation in commanding the Nineteenth Regt. Ohio Volunteers.
SAMUEL BEATTY, Col., Comdg. Nineteenth Regt. Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
Brig.-Gen. BOYLE, Cmdg. Eleventh Brigade.
The 19th encamped at Pittsburg Landing until late April 1862, when the command joined the Union advance against Corinth, Mississippi. The regiment participated in the Siege of Corinth (April 29-May 30, 1862) and, upon the North's occupation of the city, pursued the retreating Confederate garrison as far as Brownsboro, Mississippi. The 19th next joined the Army of the Ohio's advance into northern Alabama, passing through Iuka, Mississippi and Florence, Alabama, before entering camp at Battle Creek, Tennessee. On August 21, 1862, the regiment departed Battle Creek for Nashville.
In early September 1862, the 19th joined the Army of the Ohio's pursuit of Confederate General Braxton Bragg's army, which had launched an invasion of Kentucky and was threatening Ohio's southern border. The Union army beat the Confederates to Louisville and, after several weeks of rest, advanced against the Southerners. On October 8, 1862, the Army of the Ohio engaged Bragg's Confederates at the Battle of Perryville, Kentucky. The 19th arrived on the battlefield late in the day but saw no combat. As a result of this battle, the Confederates withdrew from Kentucky. The Army of the Ohio briefly pursued the enemy, with the 19th having a small skirmish with enemy forces at Crab Orchard, Kentucky. The Army of the Ohio next marched to Nashville. The Ohio regiment encamped near the State Lunatic Asylum.
In late December 1862, the 19th joined the Army of the Ohio's advance upon Bragg's Army of Tennessee, which was situated at Murfreesboro, Tennessee. At the Battle of Stones River, the two armies clashed from December 31, 1862 to January 2, 1863. On the engagement's first day, the 19th attacked the Confederate right but withdrew after the Southerners drove back the Union right. The regiment rushed to the Northern right and helped to repulse the enemy assault. On the battle's final day, the 19th again attacked the Confederate right. The regiment had to withdraw after a Confederate counterattack. The regiment entered the battle with 449 men available for duty and lost 213 soldiers killed, wounded, or captured. After this Union victory, the 19th's commanding officer issued the following reports:
HDQRS. NINETEENTH REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. Field, near Murfreesborough, Tenn., January 6, 1863.
LIEUT.: I transmit you the following report of the participation of the Nineteenth Regt. Ohio Volunteers, U. S. Army (Charles F. Manderson, major commanding), in the action in front of Murfreesborough, on Wednesday December 31, 1862:
On the morning of that date the regiment was under arms in double column, between the Murfreesborough turnpike and Chattanooga and Nashville Railroad, being the right of the front line of the Third Division, left wing. By order of Col. Samuel Beatty, commanding First Brigade, after deploying column and loading, we moved by the right flank to the left, crossing Stone's River at the ford, and forming line (after throwing Companies A and K out as skirmishers), with the right resting about 100 yards from the river, the Ninth Kentucky Volunteers, which were first formed on our right, being moved to the left.
About 10 o'clock we were ordered to recall our skirmishers and recross the river, which being done we moved by the right flank across the open space between the railroad and pike, amid the greatest confusion of retreating batteries, men, teams, and ambulances. At this point Gen. Rousseau ordered the regiment to move across the turnpike, and form line in the woods skirting the west of the pike. From this position we were immediately ordered by Col. Beatty to march by the left flank back to the railroad, and then by the right flank back to our former position, in the last-named woods, under a fire by which we lost several men.
This scene was one of disorder and panic. Regt. after regiment swept through our lines in the greatest confusion; but through it all our men preserved an unbroken front, and when the pursuing enemy came within 75 or 100 yards, and our front was clear of the retreating and broken columns, at the order to fire by file, poured most destructive volleys into the foe, breaking his lines in disorder.
Gen. Rousseau, who was in the rear of the right of the regiment cheering our men with his presence and words, then ordered a charge, and our regiment with fixed bayonets, supported by the Ninth Kentucky Volunteers on our left, and the Seventy-ninth Indiana Volunteers in our rear, drove the foe in splendid style for about one-fourth of a mile, when, our ammunition running low, the front line wheeled into column, and the Seventy-ninth Indiana Volunteers passed through to the front. The regiment, then forming the second line, in the rear of the Seventy-ninth Indiana Volunteers, advanced for about three-fourths of a mile to an open field, where we were separated from our front line by a cedar thicket.
We were here but a few minutes when our right support gave way, and left our regiment greatly exposed to a flanking fire. I sent word twice to Col. Beatty that the enemy had flanked our position in great force, but received no order. The regiment was suffering most terribly from the fire, and, seeing the enemy within 50 yards of our right and in position to destroy us, I ordered a change of front to the right and rear. Our men, while executing the movement, were thrown into temporary disorder by the scattered regiments on our right pouring through the line, but gathered on the instant, formed an excellent line in good position, and fired with such precision, that, with the aid of a battery of artillery in our rear and left, we held the ground and drove the foe from the open field in our front. Being now entirely out of ammunition, an suffering loss from the fire of our own artillery, we moved by the right flank into the woods, and formed line on the left of the Second Brigade, Col. Fyffe commanding, the second battalion of the Pioneer Corps supporting us on the left. We were here supplied with ammunition by Capt. Wood assistant inspector-general, Third Division, and threw out skirmishers, who met no enemy.
About 4 o'clock we were relieved by the First Brigade, First Division, Col. Walker commanding; bivouacked where we were until midnight, when we were ordered by Col. Beatty to report to him on the left of the railroad.
Our loss in this action is as follows, viz: Killed, 1 officer and 11 enlisted men; total, 12. Wounded, 1 officer and 66 enlisted men; total, 67. Missing, 3 enlisted men. Total loss, 82 men. I subjoin as accurate a list as it is possible at this time to gather.
My men behaved with the utmost bravery and coolness. Senior Capt. Henry G. Stratton, of Company C, assisted as field officer. He was severely wounded about noon. First Lieut. Daniel Donovan, commanding Company B, fell, dead, in front of his company while gallantly leading a charge. Orderly Sergt. Robert D. Wilson, commanding Company D, was killed about the same time.
The cool, manly daring of these gallant officers cannot be spoken of too highly. But the action of all of the Nineteenth Ohio was under the directing eve of the colonel commanding the brigade and the generals commanding, and to them I leave further comments.
CHARLES F. MANDERSON, Maj., Comdg. Nineteenth Regt. Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
Lieut. W. H. H. SHEETS, A. A. A. G., First Brig., Third Div., Left Wing, Fourteenth Army Corps, Dept. of the Cumberland.
HDQRS. NINETEENTH REGT. OHIO VOL. INFANTRY, Field, near Murfreesborough, Tenn. January 6, 1863
LIEUT.: On Friday, January 2, the Nineteenth Ohio Volunteers, U. S. Army, under my command, was formed, with the right resting near the high bank on Stone's River, being held with the Ninth Regt. Kentucky Volunteers, which joined us on the left, in reserve of the Second and Third Brigades, Third Division, which position we had assumed on Thursday, January 1, about noon.
Soon after 4 p.m. heavy firing on our front caused us to take arms and stand in line. The firing had continued about fifteen minutes, when Lieut. Murdock, aide-de-camp to Col. Beatty, commanding Third Division, rode up to the front and left of the regiment and ordered me to advance. Although the order, coming from that source, was contrary to rule and custom, presuming the occasion to be an emergency requiring such a deviation. I ordered the regiment forward in double-quick time. We advanced up a gradual slope for about 200 yards, the lines in front of us pouring through our ranks in confusion; but the men preserved an excellent front, and rushed upon the enemy. In some parts of the line our pieces crossed those of the foe. His front line received a check of some few minutes, and was thrown into disorder; but a strong flanking party poured over the bank of the river, and broke our right flank to the rear, file after file. Seeing this, and that brave officers and many men of our right wing had fallen, I ordered the left to fall back.
Col. B. C. Grider, commanding First Brigade, here rode up to me from the left and front, and wished me to rally the men. I told him they were falling back by order; that the enemy had flanked me in force, and that I would form line at the foot of the hill. He said, "Do so;" and stated he would give the same order to the Ninth Kentucky Volunteers, on our left. The regiment rallied and formed line twice before the overwhelming force of the enemy drove them across Stone's River. The storm of missiles was terrific, and for a few moments no men could have stood under it. The bank of the river presented a scene of indescribable confusion. The colors of our regiment were seized by Second Lieut. Philip Reefy, of Company F, who gallantly dashed forward across the stream, followed by daring spirits of different regiments.
At the same time Col. Grider, bearing the colors of the Ninth Kentucky Volunteers, crossed with another party, and these flags, with two belonging to other regiments, rallied under their folds an indiscriminate mass of men and officers of the Third Division, which, supported by fresh troops that had been ordered to the conflict, drove back, in terrible confusion the columns of the enemy, victorious but a moment before. The colors of the Nineteenth Ohio and Ninth Kentucky were placed on three pieces of the enemy's artillery, which were captured and brought into our lines by squads composed of the different regiments and brigades of the division. After this magnificent scene of individual heroism, the different detachments of the regiment formed on the same ground we occupied in the morning, and bivouacked that night.
Again we have the regret the loss of brave officers and men. Capt. Urwin Bean, of Company E; First Lieut. Job D. Bell, commanding Company C, and Sergt. Maj. Lyman Tylee were killed while gallantly performing their duties. First Lieut. Aurora C. Keel, of Company F, was severely wounded; Second Lieut. William A. Sutherland, of Company H, slightly. Capt. William H. Allen, of Company F, rendered most valuable and efficient aid as a field officer. All the line officers vied with each other in deeds of courage.
I wish particularly to note the gallant bearing of First Lieut. Charles Brewer, adjutant; Second Lieut. Albert Upson, commanding Company K, and Sergt. Jason Hurd, commanding Company G. But all have done their duty, and the unpleasant task is not mine to record any acts of cowardice in the Nineteenth Ohio Regt.
I annex a list of killed, wounded, and missing.
In this action we had killed 2 officers and 13 enlisted men; total killed, 15. Wounded, 2 officers and 56 enlisted men; total wounded, 58. Missing (supposed prisoners), 31 enlisted men.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
CHARLES F. MANDERSON, Maj. Cmdg. Nineteenth Regt. Ohio Volunteers.
Lieut. W. H. H. SHEETS, A. A. G., First Brig. Third Div., Left Wing, Fourteenth Army Corps, Dept. of the Cumberland.
Following the Battle of Stones River, the 19th Ohio remained encamped in the vicinity of Murfreesboro, participating in a few excursions to drive Confederate forces from the region and also to collect forage. In late June 1863, the Army of the Cumberland, including the 19th, embarked upon the Tullahoma Campaign (June 24-July 3, 1863), a Union advance into southern Tennessee and northern Alabama. Upon the campaign's conclusion, the regiment encamped at McMinnville, Tennessee, where the organization performed garrison duty.
In early September 1863, the 19th departed McMinnville and embarked upon the Army of the Cumberland's advance into northern Georgia. The regiment skirmished repeatedly with Confederate forces belonging to General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee. On September 19 and 20, 1863, the two armies fought the Battle of Chickamauga. The 19th remained engaged both days, capturing an enemy battery on September 19. On the evening of September 20, the entire Army of the Cumberland withdrew to Chattanooga, Tennessee. After this battle, the 19th's commanding officer issued the following report:
HDQRS. NINETEENTH OHIO INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS, Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24, 1862.
CAPT.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of my regiment in the battles of the 19th and 20th, and up to the 23d instant:
Near midday of the 18th instant, we left our bivouac near Crawfish Spring under orders received from Gen. S. Beatty, marching to the vicinity of Lee and Gordon's Mills, and taking position in line of battle upon the left of Gen. Wood's division, upon the Chattanooga and La Fayette road. We remained in this position until dark, when we moved under orders to a position about one-half mile to the left and down the same road, in rear of a barricade hastily constructed of rails. Here we remained under arms during that night and until about 1 p. m. of the 20th, supporting the Third Wisconsin Battery stationed on our right.
About 1 p. m. of the 20th, under orders received from Brig.-Gen. Beatty, I moved my regiment in quick and double-quick time down the Chattanooga and La Fayette road, in the direction of heavy firing, artillery and musketry, a distance of about 2 miles. Here I formed line of battle in the skirts of a thick woods, and immediately moved forward, engaging the enemy, driving them steadily before us under a heavy fire of infantry and artillery. Obtaining sight of the battery, I immediately gave the order to charge upon it, which was promptly and gallantly responded to by the men, and in connection with the Seventy-ninth Indiana Volunteers, of our brigade, formed on our left, we took possession of this battery of six guns. My regiment captured about 20 prisoners, who were sent to the rear. Discovering the enemy passing in force to my right, I ordered a halt, and was very soon joined on the right by troops from the Second Brigade of our division. My right support giving way, I was ordered to fall back and take position in rear of the Ninth Kentucky Volunteers, then in line a few rods to my left. I remained in this position under a heavy fire of rebel infantry until ordered to fall back, the enemy having again succeeded in turning our right flank. I was retiring my men in good order until one of our batteries stationed upon the hill across the road in our rear opened fire, several of their shot striking the center of my battalion and killing and wounding a number of my men. This created considerable confusion in the ranks and the men became somewhat scattered. I succeeded in rallying most of the regiment in rear of the batteries, from which place we were forced again to retire, and take position upon a second crest near the Rossville road. Here we bivouacked and remained until the morning of the 20th.
Early on the morning of the 20th, our forces being engaged with the enemy, we moved in column of divisions at half distance to the front one-half mile, under orders from Brig.-Gen. Beatty. After changing position to the left several times, I was finally ordered to deploy column in rear of two lines of troops and a battery. The troops in our front shortly afterward became warmly engaged with the enemy, but, after a brief resistance, retired in confusion, the battery breaking through and disorganizing my line. My men became confused and scattered as a consequence, and I did not succeed in rallying them again in a body until evening. They rallied in squads, however, and remained on the field until dark, fighting with fragments of other regiments. Having collected my command, less the killed and wounded, at Missionary Gap near Rossville, on the evening of the 20th we bivouacked until 2 a. m. of the 21st, when we moved under orders from Gen. S. Beatty to the outskirts of Chattanooga upon the east side of the town.
On the morning of the 22d, commenced throwing up earthworks for the defense of our position, the labor on which has been diligently prosecuted until this evening, September 23, night and day, when they were pronounced finished.
The casualties in my command, during the period mentioned in this report, will be found in the tabular statement hereto annexed.
To Maj. James M. Nash, for his valuable aid, assistance, and advice, and to the officers generally for their hearty support, I return my sincere thanks. To the non-commissioned officers and privates, with very few exceptions, all praise is due. I cannot forbear mentioning the gallant conduct of the color guard. Nobly they stood to their post; 6 out of 7 were wounded.
HENRY G. STRATTON, Lieut. Col., Comdg. 19th Regt. Ohio Vol. Infty.
Capt. O. O. MILLER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., First Brigade.
At Chattanooga, Bragg's Confederate army besieged the Union garrison from late September to late November 1863. For most of the siege, the 19th remained on the Union right. On November 23, 1863, the regiment participated in the Battle of Orchard Knob, helping the North to drive enemy soldiers from this vantage point. Two days later, the 19th fought in the Battle of Missionary Ridge, driving Bragg's remaining soldiers from the ridge, attaining a Union victory, and ending the Chattanooga Campaign. After the siege, the regiment's commanding officer issued the following report:
HDQRS. NINETEENTH REGT. OHIO VOL. INFANTRY. Chattanooga, Tennessee, November 27, 1863.
CAPT.: I have the honor to report the following as the part taken by the Nineteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the late engagement:
At 5.30 a.m. on Monday, the 23d, the regiment went on picket, with the left outpost (No. 4.) on the Tennessee River bank across Citico Creek and the right connecting with the Eighth Kansas Regiment of Gen. Willich's brigade. The regiment, numbering 250 privates, 28 sergeants, 22 officers, was divided into eight reliefs, four of which were on outpost duty and the remainder held at the station. At about 2 p.m., under orders communicated by Brig.-Gen. Willich in person, I deployed outposts No. 1, Lieut. Reefy commanding; No. 2. Capt. Laubie commanding, and No., 3. Lieut. Walker commanding, on the picket line as skirmishers, with instructions to advance, guiding from the right and refusing the left. Outpost No. 4. Capt. Agard commanding, was ordered to remain and hold the position between the river and creek. At 2.30 the advance was made, the picket of the enemy offering considerable resistance, but being driven with loss beyond the railroad embankment, where he rallied on an open field in the rifle-pits thrown up for the protection of his picket reserves. Here I strengthened the skirmish line by deploying another relief, under the command of Capt. Percival, and, the whole line advancing briskly, under the charge of Capt. Brewer, drove the enemy from his works, wounding some and capturing prisoners. The left of the skirmish line, meeting with a heavy flanking fire from across the creek, by which Lieut. Walker was severely wounded, had changed front to the left and under charge of Capt. Laubie, held the foe in check. The front of the line pushed on at a double-quick across open fields, driving the enemy from two houses, in front of one of which was a lengthy rifle-pit, from which the enemy fled, and which we held under the fire from the house.
The Ninth Kentucky Volunteers, Col. Cram commanding, which at the commencement of the advance had formed our support, having moved far to the right, and there being a movement of a force around our left with an apparent disposition to flank us, I sent word by Lieut.-Col. Stratton of the fact to Brig.-Gen. Beatty, and, moving the reserve by the right flank out of the open field, took cover in the woods to the right, changing front to the left, and was there rejoined by the Ninth Kentucky Volunteers, which formed on our right. Here we rested until our skirmishers were relieved by those of Gen. Howard's corps, when by order the regiment rejoined the brigade about dark. About 8 o'clock, Capt. Agard's command, across Citico Creek, having been relieved and joined the regiment, by verbal order of Brig.-Gen. Beatty, we marched to camp, distributed rations and ammunition, and at 10 o'clock returned, forming with the Ninth Kentucky Volunteers one battalion in double column in rear of the Seventeenth Kentucky Volunteers . We rested in this position until Wednesday afternoon, when the advance was ordered. We marched in column of divisions, left in front, to a position close to the enemy's works, at the foot of Missionary Ridge, where, the order being communicated by yourself, the regiment deployed into line and advanced at double-quick to the crest of the ridge, receiving a heavy fire, both of artillery and small-arms, but sustaining a trifling loss. After standing in line for some time, by order of Maj.-Gen. Granger, we changed front forward in rear of the Seventeenth Kentucky Volunteers, with line extending down the eastern declivity of the ridge. Afterward took position on the right of the brigade, where we bivouacked until ordered back to Chattanooga the night of the 26th. Our men assisted in bringing up several guns, caissons, and limber chests from the base of the hill, where they had been abandoned by the enemy.
The loss of the regiment (a detailed statement of which is appended) was 1 enlisted man killed, 2 officers and 9 enlisted men wounded.
All, both officers and men, did their whole duty, both faithfully and well. I am particularly indebted to Lieut.-Col. Stratton and Maj. Nash for their active and cheerful assistance during the engagement.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
CHARLES F. MANDERSON, Col., Comdg. Nineteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
Capt. O. O. MILLER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
Following the Chattanooga Campaign, the 19th immediately marched for Knoxville, Tennessee, where a Confederate force had besieged the city's Union garrison. Other Northern forces ended the siege before the regiment arrived, and the 19th entered camp at Flat Creek, Tennessee. At this location, four hundred of the regiment's members reenlisted. On January 4, 1864, the command departed Flat Creek and returned to Chattanooga twelve days later. The men who reenlisted at Flat Creek then received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio. Following the furlough, the 19th entered camp at Knoxville on March 24, 1864, before advancing to and encamping at McDonald's Station, Tennessee on April 9, 1864.
On May 6, 1864, the 19th Ohio embarked upon Union General William T. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. The goal of this expedition was for Northern forces to capture the important manufacturing center of Atlanta, Georgia. The regiment fought in many of the largest engagements of the campaign, including the Battles of New Hope Church, Kennesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Chattahoochie River, Atlanta, Jonesborough, and Lovejoy's Station. The Union military occupied Atlanta on September 2, 1864, bringing the campaign to a victorious conclusion for the North. The 19th's commanding officer issued the following report regarding the campaign:
HDQRS. NINETEENTH OHIO VET. INFANTRY VOLS., Atlanta, Ga., September 13, 1864.
CAPT.: Col. C. F. Manderson having been severely wounded on the 2d day of this month before Lovejoy's, I have the honor to report herein the operations of the Nineteenth Ohio Veteran Volunteers during the recent campaign in Tennessee and North Georgia.
Having sent all surplus baggage to Bridgeport, Ala., for storage, on the 3d day of May, 1864, we broke up camp near McDonald's Station, Tenn., and took up line of march, toward Ringgold, Ga.; reached Salem Church on the afternoon of the 4th, five miles from Ringgold, and remained there with the Ninety-third Ohio Volunteers and Thirty-fifth Indiana Volunteers, all under command of Col. Manderson, guarding the supply trains of the Fourth Army Corps, until the morning of the 7th. In pursuance of orders received on the morning of the 7th of May the regiment, Col. Manderson commanding, proceeded to Parker's Gap, guarding the supply trains that far on their way to Ringgold. On the same day the colonel commanding took possession of Parker's Gap, a narrow defile through White Oak Mountain, five miles from Ringgold, for the purpose of covering and protecting the railroad from Chattanooga to Ringgold. On the night of the 16th of May orders were received to rejoin the brigade at the front, and on the morning of the 17th the command started on the march, and on the evening of the 20th joined the brigade at a point five miles from Kingston and one mile south of Cassville. On the 23d of May the command moved with the brigade in a Southwesterly direction and crossed the Etowah River at the covered bridge, and on that day and the 24th and 25th crossed the Allatoona range, and arrived in front of Dallas, near Pickett's Mills, On the 26th, the regiment being with the brigade in the reserve on the extreme left of our lines, the Twenty-third Corps, however, coming in on our left during the night. On the morning of the 27th the reserve of the brigade was formed of the Nineteenth Ohio, Seventy-ninth Indiana, and Ninth Kentucky Volunteers, under the command of Col. Manderson, the Nineteenth Ohio being under my immediate command. In this order, about 8 a. m., we moved to the left and formed line of battle, fronting eastward, and advanced for about a half mile, the front line skirmishing with the enemy; we then moved a short distance by the left flank and again formed line, fronting southward, and in this direction advanced about a half a mile, when we again move, by the left flank, a distance of two miles or more over a hilly and heavily wooded country; we again formed to the front and moved forward, the front lines soon striking the enemy, who were posted in force behind heavy fieldworks. The front lines having melted away under the heavy and destructive file of the enemy, the reserve was ordered to the front, and advanced under a very heavy fire to an open field in front of the enemy's works, this command, taking rails, advanced into the open field and formed a slight rail barricade, behind which it lay and fought the enemy until dark. About 11 p. m. the enemy, having massed his forces, advanced under the cover of darkness and suddenly charged our lines; we fought him bravely, but being pressed by overwhelming CKu and without support, we were compelled to fall back about a half mile to the rear. We again formed our lines and lay upon our arms all night. In this action Capt. Brewer was killed, Maj. Nash and Capt. Smith were severely wounded, and 42 noncommissioned officers and privates of the regiment were killed, wounded, and taken prisoners, as shown in the annexed list.* In this position, alternating slightly from right to left, the command lay until the 6th day of June, having lost 1 man killed and l wounded on the skirmish line. The enemy having fallen back toward Marietta on the morning of the 5th, early on the morning of the 6th the command was moved to the left to within two and a half miles of Acworth. Here it lay until the morning of the 10th, when it moved about two miles to the front. From this time to the 17th it lay in front of the enemy, advancing gradually and forcing the enemy back, Capt. Firestone, Company A, having been slightly wounded on the 16th. On the night of the 16th the enemy fell back about two miles, and on the morning of the 17th we moved forward in pursuit. Being in advance, Companies A and K were sent forward as skirmishers and drove the enemy's skirmishers back to within a few rods of their line of works. Skirmished with the enemy all day. The loss in the command being 2 killed and 8 wounded. (See list annexed.) On the 18th again skirmished with the enemy, who opened on the command with artillery. Our loss this day was 1 killed and 3 wounded. (See list annexed.) 0n the night of the 18th the enemy again fell back about two miles, and on the morning of the 19th we followed, driving their skirmishers to the neighborhood of Kenesaw Mountain, with a loss of 1 man killed and 1 wounded. On the 20th and 21st we again advanced our lines slightly, having 1 man wounded on the 20th. (See list.) On the 22d we again advanced our lines, Companies C and D, under the command of First Lieut. Albert Upson, on the skirmish line and took a heavy line of the enemy's picket-pits, but were compelled to fall back, because of the line on our left not moving up promptly. Our loss this day, 6 killed and 15 wounded. (See list annexed.) In this position we remained, varying the lines slightly, until the 3d day of July, having lost 1 man wounded on June 26, and 1 killed and 1 wounded on the 29th of June on skirmish line.
On the night of the 2d of July the enemy abandoned his position on Kenesaw Mountain. On the morning of the 3d we marched in pursuit, passing to the south of Marietta. Marched six miles and bivouacked for the night. On the 4th we moved to the left and front, skirmishing with the enemy; formed our line, and threw up works. In this affair the command lost 1 man killed, 2 wounded, and 2 taken prisoners. On the night of the 4th the enemy again abandoned their works and fell back. On the morning of the 5th we marched in pursuit as far as the Chattahoochee River. Lay there in position until the 10th, having had 1 man wounded on the picketline on the 7th, and 1 killed on the 9th. On the morning of the 10th marched eight miles up the river and joined with the Twenty-third Corps. On the 12th marched three miles down the river and crossed it, camping in the hills two miles on the south side. On the 13th moved one mile to the right and threw up temporary works; no enemy seen in force in our front. Lay in this position until the morning of the 17th, when the command moved in light marching order four miles down the river to Pace's Ferry, occupied the hill on the south side, threw up breast-works, and covered the crossing of the Fourteenth Army Corps. On the 18th the command moved out to the main road leading to Atlanta. Marched about five miles and bivouacked. On the morning of the 19th we moved forward in light marching order three miles to Peach Tree Creek, where we found the enemy in force. Having thrown a temporary bridge over this stream, the command moved in support of the Ninth Kentucky Volunteers and Seventy-ninth Indiana Volunteers, and crossed the stream in the face of the enemy, and drove them from their works. The command lost in this action 1 man killed and 4 wounded. Was relieved on the night of the 19th by Gen. Hazen's brigade, and moved back to our last camp. On the 20th and 21st the command again moved forward on the left of our lines on the Decatur road, and on the 21st threw up a line of breast-works under a heavy fire from the enemy. At night the enemy fell back, and on the morning of the 22d the command again moved forward, passing through a heavy line of works abandoned by the enemy, and found that the enemy had fallen back to their inner line of works around Atlanta; advanced within 300 yards of the enemy's skirmish line, and threw up a strong line of breast-works within two miles of the city. On the 24th had 2 men wounded in camp by fire from the enemy's picket-line, and on the 25th had 1 man wounded in the same manner. On the 28th made a demonstration in our front in favor of our forces on the right, and lost 1 man killed on the skirmish line. On the 1st of August had 1 man wounded on the skirmish line, and 1 on the 2d. On the 3d of August made an advance of our picket-line and drove the enemy out of their picket-pits, capturing a number of their pickets, but were forced to abandon them and fall back to our former line, the enemy having in turn advanced upon our line in force; the command lost 3 men wounded and 1 captured. On the 4th had 1 man wounded on picket-line, and 1 on the 5th. On the 6th the command, in conjunction with the One hundred and twentyfourth Ohio, was ordered to the extreme left of our lines to repel an anticipated attempt of the enemy to turn our flank, but returned in the evening without seeing anything of the enemy. On the 13th was again ordered to the left, to guard against an attempt to turn our flank; returned in the evening to camp without seeing the enemy. On the 14th Capt. Fix, Company B, was severely wounded by a musket-ball while in his tent in camp. On the 17th had 1 man wounded on picket-line. On the 19th was again ordered to the left to occupy the works of First Brigade, Second Division, Fourth Army Corps, while it made a reconnaissance and demonstration in its front. Returned to our camp in the evening. On the 20th was again ordered to the left to guard against any attempt to turn our flank. Returned to camp same day without seeing the enemy. On the 24th First Lieut. William F. McHenry was killed by a musketball from enemy's picket-line while in his tent in camp. On the 25th the command broke up Camp, and at 11 p. m. moved off to the right. On the 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th we moved to the west and south of Atlanta and struck the railroad running to Montgomery, Ala., from Atlanta, which we tore up and destroyed. On the 30th and 31st we moved eastwardly and struck the Macon railroad on the 31st about two miles south of Rough and Ready Station, threw up breast-works, and destroyed the road.
On September 1 the command was moved in the direction of Jonesborough and destroyed the railroad within three miles of that place, and lay in support of the Second Division, Fourth Army Corps, before the enemy's works at Jonesborough, and had 1 man wounded. The enemy having abandoned their works at Jonesborough on the night of the 1st, on the morning of the 2d the command followed in pursuit about seven miles southwardly along the railroad and found the enemy posted and intrenched in a strong position a mile or two north of Lovejoy's on both sides of the railroad. companies D and E, under command of Capt. Upson, were thrown in advance as skirmishers, covering the front of the brigade. In this condition the command moved forward to the attack, and drove the enemy from a strong line of skirmish rifle-pits, covered by an abatis, and captured a number of prisoners. The command then, under orders, charged directly up the crest of a corn-field upon the enemy's main works, but was met by such a deadly fire of artillery and musketry, all centered upon the line of the brigade in consequence of the lines on our right and left not coming up to the charge, that we were forced to fall back to the cover of the woods. At this point Col. Manderson was severely wounded while gallantly cheering and encouraging his men and endeavoring to reform the line. The line was reformed and strong works thrown up along the edge of the woods. In this action the command lost 2 officers wounded severely, 2 men killed, 9 wounded and 1 missing. In this position we remained until the night of the 5th, having lost from fire of the enemy's pickets since the action of the 2d 1 man killed and 4 wounded. On the night of the 5th the command started on the march for Atlanta, where it arrived on the 8th, and went into camp about three miles cast of Atlanta, where it now is.
The whole loss of the command during the campaign is as follows: Killed-commissioned officers, 2; non-commissioned officers, 2; privates, 23; total, 27. Wounded-commissioned officers, 6; non-commissioned officers, 23; privates, 67; total, 96. Captured-non-commissioned officers, 1; privates, 12; total, 13. Aggregate, 136. I am sorry to state that many of the brave men whose names are in the annexed list have since died of their wounds.
In conclusion, sir, I take great pride in calling your attention to the gallant conduct of the officers and men of this command during the long and arduous campaign just closed. Too much praise cannot be awarded them. Fearless alike of danger or fatigue they bore the privations and exposures of the campaign with a cheerfulness that nothing could daunt, and while they mourn the loss of their brave comrades who have fallen, they rejoice at the grand success of our arms.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
HENRY G. STRATTON, Lieut. Col. Ninteenth Regt. Ohio Vet. Vol. Infty., Comdg.
Capt. W. S. S. ERB, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 3d Brig., 3d Div., 4th Army Corps.
Following the Atlanta Campaign, the 19th encamped at Atlanta for a few weeks, before joining the Union’s pursuit of Confederate General John Bell Hood’s army, which was advancing through northern Georgia, northern Alabama, and southern Tennessee in the direction of Nashville. The regiment marched through northern Georgia and Alabama and confronted Hood's army with the rest of the Union's Army of the Cumberland at the Battle of Franklin, Tennessee (November 29, 1864). The 19th saw no combat in this engagement, as officers held the unit in the reserve. After this battle, the Northerners retreated to Nashville. On December 15 and 16, 1864, the Army of the Cumberland advanced against Hood's Confederates. At the Battle of Nashville, the Union army succeeded in defeating the enemy, driving the Confederates from Tennessee. The Army of the Cumberland, including the 19th, pursued the withdrawing Southerners. The regiment next entered camp at Huntsville, Alabama on January 5, 1865. The 19th's commanding officer issued the following report regarding the regiment's actions against Hood's army:
HDQRS. NINETEENTH REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEER INFTY., Near Huntsville, Ala., January 8, 1865.
I have the honor to report the movements, &c., of my command during the campaign just closed.
On the 23d day of November, 1864, we broke camp at Pulaski, Tenn., and moved rapidly to Columbia, Tenn., where we arrived on the 24th, and, going into position on the left of the line, threw up breast-works. In the evening of the 27th we moved to the north side of Duck River, again went into position on the morning of the 28th on the left, and threw up breast-works. In the evening of the 29th we took up line of march, passing a portion of the rebel forces during the darkness near Spring Hill, at which place we halted for an hour or two, throwing up temporary breast-works. By daylight the command was again on the march and arrived at Franklin, Tenn., the same day, crossing over Harpeth River, and that evening took up position on the left of the fort on the north bank of the river, throwing up temporary breast works. That night, in conjunction with the Seventy-ninth Indiana Volunteers, the command occupied the fort mentioned in order to cover the crossing of the troops from the south side of the river and prevent the enemy from obtaining possession of the bridges before they were destroyed. Lieut. Fusselman and twenty men of this command were detailed to fire the railroad and trestle bridge. The troops having crossed, this was effected before daylight the next morning, when the command, being the last to move, marched out to join the brigade on the road to Nashville. The light from the burning bridges having exposed us to the enemy, they opened on us with artillery from the south side of the river, but doing us no damage.
On the 1st day of December, 1864, we arrived at Nashville and took up position on the right of the Granny White pike, where we threw up intrenchments and remained until the morning of the 15th, having lost one man wounded on the skirmish line December 7, 1864. Early on the morning of the 15th we moved slightly to the right, and with the brigade were placed as reserve to the other brigades of the division; and in that position sustained the First and Second Brigades of the division in the charge and capture of the strong line of works of the enemy on Montgomery Hill. The command then changed front to the left and threw up a line of breast-works, running northwardly from Montgomery Hill and nearly at a right angle to the works captured from the enemy, in order to protect the left flank, as we then composed the left of our attacking lines, and threw out skirmishers. In the final charge of the day upon the second line of the enemy's works beyond Montgomery Hill a portion of our skirmishers participated in the attack and assisted in the capture of a battery of artillery to the right of the Granny White pike, turning the fire of the same upon the flying enemy, Sergt. William D. Reed, of Company A, being the first to reach and turn the pieces upon the enemy. We then moved to the front and left to the Granny White pike, where we bivouacked for the night. Early on the morning of the 16th we moved out to the left of the Franklin pike and marched down along the railroad, with the brigade, as reserve to the First and Second Brigades of the division. Found the enemy strongly pasted in works across and to the left of the Franklin pike, and sustained the First and Second Brigades in a charge upon the enemy's works to the left of the pike, which they found too strong to take by assault. Threw up breast-works and supported the Sixth Ohio Battery while the other brigades were reforming their lines to the rear. The enemy having weakened his lines to the right of the pike to re-enforce his lines to the left of the pike to repel the charge of the First and Second Brigades above mentioned, our forces to the right of the pike charged and took the enemy's line of works in their front, whereupon we immediately moved forward, the enemy abandoning the works in our front in such haste as to leave a battery of four pieces of artillery and many small-arms. We pursued the enemy for a mile and a half, when, night coming on, we bivouacked. On the morning of the 17th we marched in pursuing of the enemy. Passed through Franklin on the 18th, crossed Rutherford's Creek on the 20th, and Duck River on the 22d, passing through Columbia that evening. Continued our march on the 23d. Passed through Pulaski on the 25th. Continued in pursuit to Lexington, Ala., where we arrived on the 28th. Lay in camp there until the 31st, when we moved for Huntsville, where we arrived on the 5th day of January, 1865.
I am happy to say that I have no casualties to report during the campaign, except the one man wounded, December , as above stated.
Casualties: Albert Honlette, private, Company B, severely wounded, December 7, 1864.
HENRY G. STRATTON, Lieut. Col. Nineteenth Ohio Veteran Infantry Cmdg.
Capt. BURNS, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
The 19th spent the first five months in Tennessee or Alabama, primarily serving on garrison duty. On June 16, 1865, officials ordered the regiment to Texas, where the organization arrived at Green Lake on July 14, 1865. On September 11, 1865, the 19th marched to San Antonio, Texas. On October 21, 1865, the regiment mustered out of service at San Antonio. The 19th proceeded to Columbus, Ohio, where officials discharged the unit's members at Camp Chase on November 25, 1865.
During the 19th Ohio's term of service, 111 men, including seven officers, died from wounds received on the battlefield. An additional 168 men, including six officers, died from disease or accidents.
Cite this Entry
"19th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service)," Ohio Civil War Central, 2021, Ohio Civil War Central. 19 Sep 2021 <http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=1266>
"19th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service)." (2021) In Ohio Civil War Central, Retrieved September 19, 2021, from Ohio Civil War Central: http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=1266
- 59th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 6th Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery
- Army of the Cumberland
- Atlanta Campaign
- Battle of Mill Springs
- Battle of Missionary Ridge
- Battle of Perryville
- Battle of Shiloh
- Battle of Stones River
- Braxton Bragg
- Camp Chase
- Camp Dennison
- Chattanooga Campaign
- Gordon Granger
- John Bell Hood
- Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- Siege of Corinth
- Tullahoma Campaign
- William T. Sherman