22nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service) (1861-1864)

Also Known As: Twenty-second Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service)

Updated: February 07, 2014

In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.

In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.

Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Soldiers of Ohio infantry regiments served the Union for varying lengths of time, ranging from one hundred days to three years. One of the three-year regiments was the 22nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Organization occurred at Benton Barracks, near St. Louis, Missouri, and the regiment mustered into service on November 5, 1861. Despite organizing in Missouri, most of the regiment's officers and enlisted men were from Ohio. The 22nd originally was known as the 13th Regiment Missouri Volunteer Infantry. On July 7, 1862, United States Secretary of War Edwin Stanton ordered that the 13th be designated as the 22nd Ohio. The 22nd Regiment had previously organized for three months service, but this unit had mustered out of service in late 1861, leaving the designation of the 22nd Regiment available for use.

On January 26, 1862, the 22nd departed Benton Barracks for Cairo, Illinois, where the organization joined General Ulysses S. Grant's command. Upon reaching Cairo, the regiment advanced to Smithland, Kentucky and performed garrison duty. On January 31, 1862, the 22nd participated on an expedition to Fort Henry, Tennessee but returned to Smithland without arriving at this destination. Immediately upon arriving back at Smithland, the regiment boarded transports for Fort Henry. The organization next advanced to Fort Donelson, Tennessee, where Grant's command was besieging the Confederate fortification. The 22nd did not join in the Union assault of the fort on February 15, 1862 but was prepared to assault the structure the next morning. No attack occurred however, as the enemy garrison surrendered.

After encamping within the fort for a few days, the 22nd departed Fort Donelson for Nashville, Tennessee, before marching to Clarksville, Tennessee. The regiment next joined Grant's advance to Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, with the 22nd reaching this community on March 20, 1862. On April 6 and 7, 1862, the regiment participated in the Battle of Shiloh. The organization entered this engagement with 450 men available for duty and had eighty-nine of these soldiers killed, wounded, or captured. Following this Union victory, the 22nd remained encamped near Pittsburg Landing until embarking upon the Union's advance against Corinth, Mississippi. The regiment participated in the Siege of Corinth from April 29 to May 30, 1862.

Following the Union's occupation of Corinth on May 30, 1862, the 22nd pursued the retreating Southerners to Booneville, Mississippi, before returning to and entering camp at Corinth. At Corinth, Secretary of War Stanton formally designated the regiment as the 22nd Ohio, ending the unit's history as the 13th Missouri. On September 17, 1862, the 22nd joined a larger Union movement against Confederate General Sterling Price's command, which had seized Iuka, Mississippi. The Northerners drove Price's soldiers from the city in the Battle of Iuka (September 19, 1862), but the 22nd did not fight in this engagement. The regiment did pursue the retreating Southerners for two days, before returning to Corinth. On October 3 and 4, 1862, at the Battle of Corinth II, the Northern garrison helped to defend successfully the town from a Confederate attack, but the 22nd did not engage the enemy in this struggle. The regiment pursued the retreating Confederates as far as Ripley, Mississippi, before returning to Corinth.

In December 1862, the 22nd advanced with Northern forces against Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry. Upon reaching Trenton, Tennessee, officials ordered the regiment to perform garrison duty and to protect the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. On March 11, 1863, the 22nd advanced to Jackson, Tennessee. On April 29, 1863, the organization marched for Corinth, before returning to Jackson on May 3, 1863. On May 29, 1863, the regiment traveled by railroad to Memphis, Tennessee, where the 22nd embarked upon General Grant's advance against Vicksburg, Mississippi.

On June 1, 1863, the 22nd boarded steamers for Haines's Bluff on the Yazoo River. The regiment remained at this location, constructing earthworks, until July 16, 1863. While performing this duty, the organization skirmished with enemy forces. The commanding officer of the 22nd issued the following reports regarding one of these engagements:

BROWNSVILLE, July 13, 1864--9.30 p. m.

The rebels, supposed to be 150 strong, attacked our pickets just now. We have driven them off. My force is so small that I do not like to venture beyond our defenses. This may only be the advance of a larger force.

O. WOOD, Col.

Capt. C. H. DYER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

BROWNSVILLE, July 14, 1864--5.45 p. m.

I followed the rebel force that attacked me last night to near Snake Island, about fifteen miles from here, in a southeasterly direction., where they divided in small squads and took different directions. I did not deem it advisable to pursue too far with the force under my command. I do not know what force the rebels belong to. One of my vedettes lost his horse, saddle, and bridle. We captured five guns from them. The detachment of Tenth Illinois Cavalry had just arrived. Capt. Wilson will report his disaster to you.

O. WOOD, Col.

Capt. C. H. DYER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

The 22nd next advanced to Helena, Arkansas, where the organization joined the Army of the Arkansas. On August 13, 1863, the army marched for Little Rock, Arkansas, reaching this city on September 10, 1863. On October 28, 1863, the 22nd advanced towards Brownsville, Arkansas, where the organization guarded the railroad between Little Rock and Duvall's Bluff for the next year. The regiment conducted several expeditions against enemy guerrillas. Although the Ohioans captured numerous guerrillas, the men never returned to camp with prisoners. While guarding the railroad, 105 members of the 22nd reenlisted in the Union military in February 1864. The re-enlistees received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio. Upon returning to the front, these men continued guard duty along the railroad.

On October 26, 1864, the 22nd's men who did not reenlist received orders to report to Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio. At this location, on November 18, 1864, these men mustered out of service and were permitted to return to their homes. The soldiers who had reenlisted were incorporated into other units serving in Arkansas.

During the 22nd Ohio's term of service, thirty-eight men, including two officers, died from wounds received on the battlefield. An additional 169 men, including two officers, died from disease or accidents.

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"22nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service)," Ohio Civil War Central, 2019, Ohio Civil War Central. 17 Oct 2019 <http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=1258>

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"22nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Three Years Service)." (2019) In Ohio Civil War Central, Retrieved October 17, 2019, from Ohio Civil War Central: http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=1258

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