In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Cavalry regiments established in Ohio were known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. Regiments formed in Ohio served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. During the winter of 1861-1862, the 1st Independent Battalion Ohio Volunteer Cavalry formed at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio.
The 1st Battalion traveled to Benton Barracks at St. Louis, Missouri soon after formation. On April 4, 1862, the organization boarded steamers Robert Campbell and Sam. Gaty and headed for Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, reaching this location one week later. On April 26, 1862, the battalion departed Fort Leavenworth for Fort Laramie in Wyoming. The organization arrived at Fort Laramie on May 30, 1862. Officials then ordered the battalion into the mountains to seek out Native American enemies. Authorities positioned many of the battalion's members along the North Platte and the Sweetwater Rivers, with the battalion's headquarters located near Pacific Springs and the South Pass. In July 1862, the Overland Mail Company opened another mail route across the Rocky Mountains to California along the Cherokee Trail. Officials ordered the 1st Battalion to continue to guard the North Platte and Sweetwater Rivers and also to send troops to the Cherokee Trail to protect the mail wagons. The battalion's headquarters also relocated at this time to Fort Laramie. The Ohioans engaged in constant skirmishes with Native American warriors.
In June and July 1863, a new cavalry battalion formed at Camp Dennison. Officials combined the new organization with the 1st Independent Battalion, Ohio Volunteer Cavalry to create the 11th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. With the formation of the 11th Regiment, the 1st Independent Battalion Ohio Volunteer Cavalry ceased to exist as an independent command.
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"1st Independent Battalion Ohio Volunteer Cavalry," Ohio Civil War Central, 2022, Ohio Civil War Central. 19 Aug 2022 <http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=1202>
"1st Independent Battalion Ohio Volunteer Cavalry." (2022) In Ohio Civil War Central, Retrieved August 19, 2022, from Ohio Civil War Central: http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=1202