Ohio Volunteer Infantry (1861 - 1865)

Updated: January 11, 2011

Historically, British colonies utilized militia forces to defend themselves from attacks by Native Americans and other powers. Once Americans secured their independence in the American Revolution, the new states continued to rely primarily on the militia for military defense.

Historically, British colonies utilized militia forces to defend themselves from attacks by Native Americans and other powers. Once Americans secured their independence in the American Revolution, the new states continued to rely primarily on the militia for military defense. The requirements to serve in the militia varied from colony to colony and then from state to state, but generally every able-bodied adult white man was required to participate in the militia unless he paid a fine to be excused.

By the early 1800s, the militia began to decline in use. While most states continued to have militia forces, requirements to serve lessened, and most militia organizations became social rather than formal military organizations. This decline began along the East Coast and slowly moved westward. The decline tended to accompany the removal or extermination of Native Americans, who white Americans viewed as a serious military threat. As whites exterminated or forcibly removed the natives elsewhere, state governments relaxed militia requirements and reduced funding. In the case of Ohio, following the War of 1812, the militia began to decline in importance, as whites drove most Native Americans further west. The War of 1812's outcome also helped convince white Americans that they were invincible, prompting a belief that the militia forces were not necessary.

During previous conflicts, such as the American Revolution, various Indian wars, and the War of 1812, the federal government had heavily relied upon militia forces to supplement the regular military forces. With the militia's decline, the federal government and states began to develop a new means of securing military forces in time of war. The United States Army would maintain a small force of regular soldiers and a plethora of commanders that could lead quickly recruited state troops in times of conflict. These supplemental troops were known as Volunteer Infantry units. Those from Ohio became known as the Ohio Volunteer Infantry. The members of these state units could appoint their own junior officers, while state governors usually appointed higher ranking officers. In times of military necessity, these state units would serve alongside federal regular units and be led into battle by, at the highest levels, regular military commanders.

This reliance on volunteer units remained the standard from the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) through the Spanish-American War (1898). Beginning in the 1900s, volunteers or draftees began to serve in regular army units with regular soldiers.

In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.

Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiments During the American Civil War:

Regiment

Term of Enlistment

Original Strength

Mustered Out Strength

1st Regiment

three years

1,001

474

2nd Regiment

three years

913

383

3rd Regiment

three years

919

310

4th Regiment

three years

1,004

177

5th Regiment

three years

941

322

6th Regiment

three years

931

525

7th Regiment

three years

1,006

240

8th Regiment

three years

905

72

9th Regiment

three years

974

400

10th Regiment

three years

958

310

11th Regiment

three years

887

312

13th Regiment

three years

900

142

14th Regiment

three years

996

504

15th Regiment

three years

938

502

16th Regiment

three years

923

477

17th Regiment

three years

852

620

18th Regiment

three years

921

831

19th Regiment

three years

996

478

20th Regiment

three years

916

444

21st Regiment

three years

889

378

22nd Regiment

three years

850

133

23rd Regiment

three years

927

732

24th Regiment

three years

923

310

25th Regiment

three years

949

352

26th Regiment

three years

914

249

27th Regiment

three years

898

474

28th Regiment

three years

1,002

194

29th Regiment

three years

988

426

30th Regiment

three years

796

282

31st Regiment

three years

970

719

32nd Regiment

three years

884

766

33rd Regiment

three years

839

368

34th Regiment

three years

953

unknown

35th Regiment

three years

812

510

36th Regiment

three years

850

959

37th Regiment

three years

867

416

38th Regiment

three years

968

697

39th Regiment

three years

977

773

40th Regiment

three years

890

unknown

41st Regiment

three years

889

293

42nd Regiment

three years

941

unknown

43rd Regiment

three years

925

817

44th Regiment

three years

925

unknown

45th Regiment

three years

946

436

46th Regiment

three years

865

308

47th Regiment

three years

830

277

48th Regiment

three years

938

267

49th Regiment

three years

866

293

50th Regiment

three years

924

684

51st Regiment

three years

965

669

52nd Regiment

three years

978

437

53rd Regiment

three years

899

416

54th Regiment

three years

709

256

55th Regiment

three years

966

378

56th Regiment

three years

863

203

57th Regiment

three years

937

213

58th Regiment

three years

873

364

59th Regiment

three years

609

178

60th Regiment

one year

867

unknown

60th Regiment

three years

unknown

563

61st Regiment

three years

876

unknown

62nd Regiment

three years

936

unknown

63rd Regiment

three years

904

564

64th Regiment

three years

890

238

65th Regiment

three years

909

144

66th Regiment

three years

921

439

67th Regiment

three years

1,025

570

68th Regiment

three years

990

514

69th Regiment

three years

900

536

70th Regiment

three years

944

355

71st Regiment

three years

879

377

72d Regiment

three years

1,010

319

73rd Regiment

three years

891

454

74th Regiment

three years

970

457

75th Regiment

three years

921

unknown

76th Regiment

three years

929

433

77th Regiment

three years

910

444

78th Regiment

three years

908

521

79th Regiment

three years

859

531

80th Regiment

three years

919

325

81st Regiment

three years

950

588

82nd Regiment

three years

931

727

83rd Regiment

three years

1,010

unknown

84th Regiment

three months

1,021

unknown

85th Regiment

three months

871

unknown

86th Regiment

three months

968

unknown

86th Regiment

six months

977

unknown

87th Regiment

six months

1,024

unknown

88th Regiment

six months

620

unknown

88th Regiment

three months

1,012

1,017

89th Regiment

three months

993

418

90th Regiment

three months

965

457

91st Regiment

three years

954

741

92nd Regiment

three years

905

488

93rd Regiment

three years

967

376

94th Regiment

three years

1,010

418

95th Regiment

three years

1,017

359

96th Regiment

three years

1,014

427

97th Regiment

three years

964

371

98th Regiment

three years

985

401

99th Regiment

three years

1,020

unknown

100th Regiment

three years

1,014

526

101st Regiment

three years

980

329

102nd Regiment

three years

1,061

631

103rd Regiment

three years

975

185

104th Regiment

three years

1,017

640

105th Regiment

three years

1,009

427

106th Regiment

three years

703

520

107th Regiment

three years

850

491

108th Regiment

three years

625

412

110th Regiment

three years

797

627

111th Regiment

three years

1,011

557

113th Regiment

three years

849

526

114th Regiment

three years

940

393

115th Regiment

three years

972

696

116th Regiment

three years

897

590

117th Regiment

three years

796

unknown

118th Regiment

three years

908

530

120th Regiment

three years

949

unknown

121st Regiment

three years

943

391

122nd Regiment

three years

936

585

123rd Regiment

three years

969

662

124th Regiment

three years

847

431

125th Regiment

three years

914

360

126th Regiment

three years

889

597

127th Regiment

three years

930

unknown

128th Regiment

three years

1.025

985

129th Regiment

six months

926

unknown

Ohio National Guard Infantry Units that Became Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiments:

            Regiment

Term of Enlistment

Original Strength

Mustered Out Strength

130th Regiment

100 days

840

797

131st Regiment

100 days

874

865

132nd Regiment

100 days

846

803

133rd Regiment

100 days

917

857

134th Regiment

100 days

867

867

135th Regiment

100 days

850

688

136th Regiment

100 days

869

663

137th Regiment

100 days

905

800

138th Regiment

100 days

843

804

139th Regiment

100 days

773

664

140th Regiment

100 days

858

855

141st Regiment

100 days

866

860

142nd Regiment

100 days

845

845

143rd Regiment

100 days

856

856

144th Regiment

100 days

831

834

145th Regiment

100 days

870

832

146th Regiment

100 days

882

822

147th Regiment

100 days

853

787

148th Regiment

100 days

823

775

149th Regiment

100 days

858

755

150th Regiment

100 days

929

907

151st Regiment

100 days

860

816

152nd Regiment

100 days

860

821

153rd Regiment

100 days

909

753

154th Regiment

100 days

842

743

155th Regiment

100 days

838

785

156th Regiment

100 days

877

841

157th Regiment

100 days

859

859

159th Regiment

100 days

874

847

160th Regiment

100 days

856

836

161st Regiment

100 days

855

831

162nd Regiment

100 days

853

819

163rd Regiment

100 days

839

774

164th Regiment

100 days

865

834

165th Regiment

100 days

598

504

166th Regiment

100 days

960

960

167th Regiment

100 days

793

765

168th Regiment

100 days

851

767

169th Regiment

100 days

945

873

170th Regiment

100 days

851

788

171st Regiment

100 days

898

898

172nd Regiment

100 days

854

845

173rd Regiment

one year

1,017

884

174th Regiment

one year

952

782

175th Regiment

one year

957

582

176th Regiment

one year

964

760

177th Regiment

one year

1,020

766

178th Regiment

one year

937

769

179th Regiment

one year

949

764

180th Regiment

one year

947

716

181st Regiment

one year

1,007

850

182nd Regiment

one year

971

771

183rd Regiment

one year

1,007

793

184th Regiment

one year

985

861

185th Regiment

one year

1,006

889

186th Regiment

one year

991

851

187th Regiment

one year

998

835

188th Regiment

one year

1,001

919

189th Regiment

one year

1,009

939

191st Regiment

one year

1,009

871

192nd Regiment

one year

1,011

894

193rd Regiment

one year

997

842

194th Regiment

one year

990

785

195th Regiment

one year

981

759

196th Regiment

one year

984

792

197th Regiment

one year

1,006

883


Cite this Entry

MLA Style

"Ohio Volunteer Infantry," Ohio Civil War Central, 2017, Ohio Civil War Central. 28 Apr 2017 <http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=233>

APA Style

"Ohio Volunteer Infantry." (2017) In Ohio Civil War Central, Retrieved April 28, 2017, from Ohio Civil War Central: http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=233

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